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Referencing styles - a Practical Guide

MLA

MLA referencing style

Used by: English (as well as Chicago), Philosophy (as well as Harvard)

Introduction to MLA referencing style

The Modern Languages Association of America (MLA) style used for acknowledging source materials in humanities subjects. This guide is based on the MLA 8th Edition - see below for the major differences between the 7th and 8th editions.

In-text citations

Information from sources in the text is shown with in-text citations that include the author's surname and the page number(s), or line number for poetry.

Citations can appear after the information, or integrated into the sentence:

The conversation between a patient and their doctor can be an awkward interaction (Hall 7-10).

The awkwardness of conversations between a patient and doctor has been presented in Hall (7-10).

Hall’s The Coroner (7-10) describes an awkward consultation between a patient and doctor.

Where no page number can be given for a source (eg, webpage), include just the name of the author/ organisation in, or add ‘n.pag.’ for ‘no pagination’ to indicate a lack of page numbering.

Reference list

A list of works cited/bibliography at the end of the document includes the full details of each source so the reader can find them themselves. The list is organised alphabetically by author surname. 

The information to include depends on the types of source - see the examples.

MLA Handbook 8th Edition: Please note that these examples have been updated in line with the 8th Edition of the MLA Handbook. This is still fairly recent, so departments may accept references in MLA 8th Edition and 7th Edition style.

The MLA 8th Edition allows you to be flexible to a degree and to consider whether your reader can locate the sources you have referenced, so they recommend a basic format and you can add information if you wish to make it more clear.

Major Differences between 7th & 8th Edition

Book: A book no longer needs the location of publication or the medium of publication.

  • 7th Edition: Bartley, Christopher. An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. London: Continuum, 2011. Print.
  • 8th Edition: Bartley, Christopher. An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. Continuum, 2011.

Journal: The volume, number and page numbers have been more explicit. The date is no longer in brackets and there is no need for the medium of publication.

  • 7th Edition: Ritter, Joshua R. "Recovering Hyperbole: Rethinking the Limits of Rhetoric for an Age of Excess." Philosophy and Rhetoric 45.4 (2012): 406-28. Print.
  • 8th Edition: Ritter, Joshua R. "Recovering Hyperbole: Rethinking the Limits of Rhetoric for an Age of Excess." Philosophy and Rhetoric, vol. 45, no. 4, 2012: pp. 406-28. 

Useful Resources

Guidance for all source types

1, 2 or 3 authors

Give all author names within your in-text citation and name all the authors in your works cited/ bibliography. Name authors in the order they appear in the source. 

In-text:
(Swales and Feak 87)

Works cited/ bibliography:

For the first author, give their name as Surname, First name Initial. (eg, Ritter, Joshua R.). For subsequent authors, give their name as Forename Initial. Surname (eg, Joshua R. Ritter)

Swales, John M., and Christine B. Feak. Academic writing for Graduate Students: Essential Tasks and Skills. 2nd. U of Michigan Press, 2011.

4+ authors

In-text:
Give the name of the first author in-text, followed by et al. (the full stop is important!)

For example, (Moore et al. 26)

Works cited/ bibliography:

List all named authors in the works cited/ bibliography, or give the first author followed by et al. Be consistent in your choice.

For the first author, give their name as Surname, First name Initial. (eg, Ritter, Joshua R.). For subsequent authors, give their name as Forename Initial. Surname (eg, Joshua R. Ritter)

Moore, Sarah, Colin Neville, Maura Murphy, and Cornelia Connolly. The Ultimate Study Skills Handbook. OU Press, 2010.

OR

Moore, Sarah, et al. The Ultimate Study Skills Handbook. OU Press, 2010. 

In the MLA 8th Edition Handbook it is no longer required to provide the type of source. It is recommended, however, that you consider whether you should provide further information to enable your reader to locate a source.

In order to identify the type of source for your reader, you can follow the MLA 7th Edition guidelines when listing sources in your works cited/ bibliography. One of the elements of your reference should be the medium of publication, such as: ‘print’, ‘web’, ‘performance’ or ‘DVD’. The location of this information will vary slightly depending on the medium. For example:

“Exhibitions.” Dickens 2012, 2013. Web. 1 May 2013. http://www.dickens2012.org/section/exhibitions.Online.
Yes, Prime Minister. By Jonathan Lynn. Dir. Jonathan Lynn. Perf. Graham Seed and Michael Simkins. Theatre Royal, York. 16 Apr. 2012. Performance.

Add a short description from the title to distinguish the two sources when using them in-text.

(Horowitz, Necropolis 89) and (Horowitz, Oblivion 4).


You will then be able to distinguish between the two sources in the works cited/ bibliography. In the works cited/ bibliography, repeated use of the same author’s name can be presented using ‘---‘ in place of the name in the second and subsequent uses of that author where all authors of the sources listed are the same. Order the sources alphabetically by title when the name is the same. For example:

Horowitz, Anthony. Necropolis. Walker, 2009.
---. Oblivion. London: Walker, 2012. Print.


If you are citing the same person but individually and in co-authored works you should write their name in full in the works cited/ bibliography for each source cited with different authors, for example:

Smith, Emma. A History of Surrealism. National Gallery, 2005.
Smith, Emma, and Anne Jones. Surrealist Artists. Easel Books, 2007.
--. Joan Miro. Easel Books, 2009.
Smith, Emma, James Jackson, and Anne Jones. A Young Person’s Guide to Surrealism. National Gallery, 2009. Print.

No author name

It is important to use quality sources to support your arguments and so you should consider carefully the value of using any source when you cannot identify its author.

For online sources, look carefully for named contributors, such as in the ‘about us’ sections. For printed material, look carefully at the publication/ copyright information, which is often on the inside cover of a book or back page of a report.

If you cannot locate the author information, do not use ‘Anon.’ or ‘Anonymous’, instead you could use:

  • The name of the organisation in place of the author – (British Museum 23)
  • The title of the work/ webpage in the text, in full or in short form, in such a way as to easily locate the source in the list of works cited/ bibliography, with a page number if possible – (The Georgian Assembly Hall 23) or (Georgian Assembly 23).

In the list of works cited/ bibliography, the work would then be listed alphabetically by the first major word of its title, that is, the above would be listed under G.

The Georgian Assembly Hall, York: Wright’s Books, 1885. Print.  

 


No publication date

Knowing when a source was created, published, or last updated is important as this helps you to determine the relevance and reliability of the source. Sacred and classical works where dates are not given (precisely) are, however, also commonly used. For online sources, look carefully for created and/ or last updated dates on the page(s).

If the source does not give the date, but you have found reference to it elsewhere, put the date in [ ] to indicate this, adding a ? to emphasise any uncertainty, for example:

John, Jeremy. My Poems from the Trenches. Knight Books, [1919?].

If you know an approximate date use ‘c.’, for ‘circa’, for example:

Singh, Gita. Monsoon Heat. Jaipur: Tiger, [c.1935]. Print.

If you cannot locate or estimate a publication date, use ‘n.d.’ for no date in place of the year.

Quotations are word-for-word text included in your work and must be clearly distinguished from your own words and ideas.


Short quotations (of less than four lines of prose or two to three short lines of poetry)

Use a brief phrase within your paragraph or sentence to introduce the quotation, before including it inside double quotation marks “ “. Give the page number for a discursive quotation, inside the end punctuation, for example:

As Neville states, “you should cite all sources and present full details of these in your list of references” (37).

Give the line number(s) for lines of poetry or a play script, for example:

Coward creates a delicate image of nature in “To a Maidenhair Fern”, which begins “You pretty thing/ each dainty frond unbending” (1-2).

In the Coward example, the name of the poem is given in quotation marks, as it is the title of a poem within a collected edition.


Longer quotations (of more than 4 lines of prose/ poetry)

Use block quotation, without quotation marks, but clearly indented to indicate these words are not your own. Include the page/ line number outside of the end punctuation. For example:

Neville comments that:
It can sometimes be difficult, if not impossible, to avoid using some of the author’s original words, particularly those that describe or label phenomena. However, you need to avoid copying out what the author said, word for word. Choose words that you feel give a true impression of the author’s original ideas or action. (38)


For poetry, either indent the full quotation and left align, or if appropriate, retain the unusual spacing. For example:

Coward creates an optimistic image of nature in “To a Maidenhair Fern”:
                                                             You pretty thing,
                                             Each dainty frond unbending,
                                             Supple unending,
                                                            Like pearls on a string –
                                             Your message in sending
                                                            A promise of spring. (1-6)


The poem’s title will be included in the list of works cited/ bibliography.

A secondary reference/ indirect citation is given when you are referring to a source which you have not read yourself, but have read about in another source, for example referring to Jones’ work that you have read about in Smith.

Avoid using secondary references wherever possible and locate the original source and reference that. Only give a secondary reference where this is not possible and you deem it essential to use the material. It is important to think carefully about using secondary references as the explanation or interpretation of that source by the author you have read may not be accurate. If you must use them, use the following format:

In-text:

In Colleer Abbott's "The Life and Letters of George Darley, Poet and Critic" (qtd. in Chirico 47) ... 

Works cited/ bibliography:

Chirico, Paul. John Clare and the Imagination of the Reader. Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

If you are citing works by different authors with the same name, include the initial as well as the last name, or the full first name if the initial is also shared. For example:

(J. Smith 33; P. Smith 49)

Or 

(John Smith 33; Jenny Smith 49)

It is important to give a page number in an in-text citation in the following circumstances:

  • when quoting directly.
  • when referring to a specific detail in a text (for example, a specific theory or idea, an illustration, a table, a set of statistics).

This might mean giving an individual page number or a small range of pages from which you have taken the information. Giving page numbers enables the reader to locate the specific item to which you refer.

Note: Where no page or paragraph number can be given for a source, such as on the web, it is acceptable to just give the name of the author/ organisation in ( ) or to name the author and the source title in the sentence. You can also use ‘n.pag.’ for ‘no pagination’ in your works cited/ bibliography to indicate a lack of page numbering.

You should capitalise the first word, the last word and any major word of a book, journal article, etc. Also, capitalise the first word following a colon in the title.

Pride and Prejudice
Troy and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery.

Usually in-text citations will be included in your word count as they are integral to your argument. This may vary depending on the assignment you are writing and you should confirm this with your module tutor. If in-text citations are included, this does not mean you should leave out citations where they are appropriate. 

Commonly used sources

Examples of in-text citations and reference list entries for key source types.

Use these examples alongside the information given in the 'Guidance for all source types' box.

In-text:
(Bartley 100)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Information to include
Surname, Forename. Title of book. Publisher, year.

Bartley, Christopher. An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. Continuum, 2011.

Chapter in an edited book

In-text:
(Marenbon 45)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Information to include
Surname, Forename. "Title of chapter." Title of book. Ed. Forename Inital. Surname. Publisher, year. page range.

Marenbon, John. "The Medievals." The Oxford Handbook of Causation. Eds. Helen Beebee, Christopher Hitchcock and Peter Menzies. Oxford UP, 2009.40-54.

For one editor use Ed., for two or more editors use Eds.


Edited book

In-text:
(Beebee, Hitchcock and Menzies 4)
Works cited/ bibliography:

Information to include
Editor Surname, Forename., ed. Title of book. Publisher, year. Type (if needed).

Beebee, Helen, Christopher Hitchcock, and Peter Menzies, eds. The Oxford Handbook of
   Causation. 
Oxford UP, 2009. Print.


For one editor use ed., for two or more editors use eds.

Journal paper (print copy)

In-text: (Ritter 409)
Works cited/ bibliography:

Information to include
Surname, Forename, Initial. "Title of paper." Name of journal, vol. #, no. #, year: pp. #-#

Ritter, Joshua R. "Recovering Hyperbole: Rethinking the Limits of Rhetoric for an Age of Excess."
   Philosophy and Rhetoric, vol. 45, no.4, 2012: pp. 406-28.

 


Journal paper (electronic copy)

Normally, this format is used only for journals that do not have a print publication and are published only online, or that have a particular online version. For journals that have both print and online publication, use the referencing format for 'Journal article (print copy)', even if you obtained your copy of the article electronically.

In-text:
(Buss 365)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Information to include
Surname, Forename, Initial. "Title of paper." Name of journal, vol. #, no. #, year: pp. #-#. URL Accessed day month, year.

Buss, Sarah. "The Value of Humanity." The Journal of Philosophy, vol. 109, no.5/6, 2012: pp.341-77. <https://www.pdcnet.org//pdc/bvdb.nsf/purchase?openform&fp=jphil&id=jphil_2012_0109_41400_0341_0377&onlyautologin=true> Accessed 10 March, 2017.

Newspaper article (with author)

In-text:
(Brady and Dutta 4)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Information needed
Surname, Forename, Initial. "Title of article." Name of newspaper. day Mon. year: pp.#-#

Brady, Brian, and Kunal Dutta. “45,000 Caught Cheating at Britain's Universities.” Independent on
   Sunday. 11 Mar. 2012: pp. 4-5.

 


Newspaper article (no author)

For a source without an author it is acceptable to use the title, or a shortened version of it, in the in-text citation.

In-text:
(“French Elections” 26)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Information needed

"Title of article." Editorial. Name of newspaper. day Mon. year: pp.#-#

“French Elections. Bitter-Sweet Victory for the Left.” Editorial. The Guardian. 23 Apr. 2012: p.26.

 


Newspaper article (online)

In-text:
Bean highlights the authors’ enthusiasm for the project…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Information needed
Surname, Forename, Initial. "Title of article." Name of newspaper. day Mon. year. URL Accessed day Month year.

Bean, Dan. “Rowntree’s Chocolate Factory Book in the Top 10 The Sunday Times Bestsellers
 Chart.” The Press [York], 7 June 2013. http://www.yorkpress.co.uk/news/10470330.Rowntree___s_chocolate_factory_book_in_the_Top_10  _of_bestsellers_chart/ Accessed 10 March 2017.

‘[York]’ has been used to denote the location of a local newspaper if this is not clear from the newspaper’s title.

Website with author

In-text:
Botton highlights the role of six great philosophers…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Information to include
Surname, Forename Initial. "Title of specific webpage". Name of overall website, day month year. Web. URL Accessed day month year.

Botton, Alain. “Philosophy”. AlaindeBotton.com, n.d. Web. 
   http://www.alaindebotton.com/philosophy.asp. Accessed 10 March 2017.


This example follows the MLA guidance for listing French names. In the list of works cited, the individual page is given in quotation marks and the overall website in italics. ‘n.d.’ denotes that the page is undated, with only an accessed dated given.

 


Website with no author

The name of the organisation or the title of the specific webpage can be used if no author name is given.

In-text:
Specific support is available for “Distance Learners”…
OR
The University of York offers specific support to…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Information to include
Organisation. "Title of specific webpage". Name of overall website. day month year. Web. URL Accessed day month year.

University of York. “Distance Learners”. The Writing Centre. 12 Apr. 2013. Web. https://www.york.ac.uk/students/studying/develop-your-skills/studyskills/writing/distancelearners/. Accessed 10 March 2017.

Further sources

Examples of in-text citations and reference list entries for other source types.

Use these examples alongside the information given in the 'Guidance for all source types' box.

In-text: (Education Act 22.2)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Education Act. c.21. 2011. 


The c.21 refers to the chapter, the number of the Act according to those passed during the parliamentary session 2011. 22.2 in the in-text citation denotes section 22 paragraph 2 of the Act. Titles of Acts should not be italicised in text or in the works cited/ bibliography.

It is acceptable to shorten a long title when doing so will not confuse the reader or detract from their ability to match the in-text citation to the reference in the works cited/ bibliography.

In-text:
(Master Atlas 14)
Or
(Master Atlas of Greater London 14)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Master Atlas of Greater London. 11th ed. Geographer's A-Z Map Company, 2007. 

In-text:
In his blog “Supporting Pussy Riot”, Fry expressed…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Fry, Stephen. “Supporting Pussy Riot.” The New Adventures of Stephen Fry, 22 August 2012. Web.
http://www.stephenfry.com/2012/08/22/supporting-pussy-riot/. Accessed 10 March 2017.

Use this format if citing the illustrations used with a text, for example in children’s literature

In-text:
In this edition, Mr Toad is portrayed as…(Aitchison 27)
OR
In this edition, Mr Toad is portrayed as…(Grahame 27)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Aitchison, Martin, illus. The Wind in the Willows. By Kenneth Grahame. Retold,
  Joan Collins. Ladybird, 1983. 

OR

Grahame, Kenneth. The Wind in the Willows. Retold, Joan Collins. Illus. Martin Aitchison.
  Ladybird, 1983. 

NB: ‘illus.’ is used to denote the illustrator of the source.

If you are reading an English language version of a book originally published in another language follow this example

In-text:
(Larsson, 24)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Larsson, Stieg. The Girl Who Played with Fire. Trans. Reg Keeland. MacLehose Press,
   2009. 

NB: ‘Trans.’ is used to denote the translator of the source.

Follow this example if you read a book in another language.

In-text:
(Hoops 24)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Hoops, Johannes. Kommentar zum Beowulf [Commentary on Beowulf]. Carl Winters
    Universitatsbuchhandlung, 1932. 

If a named author is given, use this in-text and for the works cited entry, otherwise use the name of the program. As this is an unusual source, it is recommended to make explicit this is Computer Software.

In-text:
Video of the presentation was produced using Snagit.

Works cited/ bibliography:

Snagit. Vers. 9.1. Computer software. TechSmith, 2009.

Conference proceedings (full)

In-text:
The papers presented in Billings, Boyle and Griffiths…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Billings, Sabrina J., John P. Boyle and Aaron M. Griffith, eds. CLS 35 Part 1: Papers from the Main
   Session. Chicago Linguistic Society 35. 22-24 Apr. 1999.  

 


Conference paper (unpublished)

In-text:
Burge’s presentation discussed…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Burge, Amy. "A Very English Place: The Intimate Relationship Between Britain and Arabia in the
   Contemporary Sheikh Romance." EUPOP 2012: Inaugural Conference of the European Popular
   Culture Association. University of the Arts, London. 11-13 July 2012. Paper presentation.

Either cite the name of the writer or the work, depending on the emphasis in the text. 

In-text:
In the episode “How I got my Nose,” Harvey presents the humorous reminiscences of a young man...
OR
Harvey’s writing in “How I got my Nose” portrays…

Works cited/ bibliography:

“How I got my Nose”. Beautiful People. By Jonathan Harvey. Dir. Gareth Carrivick. BBC
   Worldwide, 2008. DVD.

OR

Harvey, Jonathan, writer. “How I got my Nose.” Beautiful People. Dir. Gareth Carrivick.
   BBC Worldwide, 2008. DVD.

In-text:
A Midsummer Night’s Dream expressed the story through the music of Mendelssohn and Brahms.

Works cited/ bibliography:

A Midsummer’s Night Dream. Chor. David Nixon. Northern Ballet. West Yorkshire Playhouse,
   Leeds. 6 Sept. 2013. Performance.


Chor.’ Is used to denote the choreographer of the work.

Database Online (specific content)

In-text:
(Shepperd 2)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Shepperd, Anne Jane Walker. Diary of Anne Jane Walker Shepperd, August 1940. Alexander Street Press, 2004. British and Irish Women’s Letters and Diaries 1500 to 1950. Web. http://solomon.bwl2.alexanderstreet.com/. Accessed 10 March 2017.

 


Database Online (not referring to specific content)

In-text:
Sources were primarily located using Eighteenth Century Collections Online.

Works cited/ bibliography:

Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Database. Cengage, 2008. http://gale.cengage.co.uk/product-highlights/history/eighteenth-century-collections-online.aspx Accessed 10 March 2017.

In-text:
(Larkham 80)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Larkham, Thomas. The Diary of Thomas Larkham, 1647-1669. Ed. Susan Hardman Moore.
   Boydell, 2011. 

Dictionary (with editor)

In-text:
(Blackburn 265)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Blackburn, Simon. "Norm." The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford UP, 1996. 

 


Dictionary (without editor)

In-text:
(“Norm,” def. 1a)

Works cited/ bibliography:

"Norm." Paperback Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford UP, 2006. 


The in-text citation includes the relevant definition being referred to, in place of a page number.

E-book (online)

If page markers are not available on the e-book version you are using cite the chapter for specific references to the source (eg “…” (Berry ch.1)).

In-text:
(Berry 23)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Berry, Jessica N. Nietzsche and the Ancient Skeptical Tradition. Oxford UP, 2011.<http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195368420.001.0001/acprof-9780195368420> Accessed 10 March 2017.

 


E-book (reader)

If viewing an e-book using an e-book reader it is important to reference the specific version of the publication for this reader. If page markers are not available on the e-book version you are using cite the chapter for specific references to the source (for example, (Collins ch.3)).

In-text:
(Collins 45)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games. Scholastic Fiction, 2011. Kindle file.

Include the source type (Email), as this is an atypical source. 

In-text:
In correspondence with the author, Johnson suggested…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Johnson, Irene. “Re: Essay Tips.” Message to the author. 3 June 2013. Email.

Encyclopedia (full)

In-text:
Banks’ work collates a range of ideas…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Banks, William P., ed. Encyclopedia of Consciousness. Vol. 1. Elsevier.

 


Encyclopedia (entry)

In-text:
With author given - (Mele 270)
OR
With no author given - (“Free Will” 270)

Works cited/ bibliography:

With author given

Mele, Alfred R. "Free Will." Encyclopedia of Consciousness. Ed. William P.Banks. Vol. 1. Elsevier, 2009.  


OR with no author given

"Free Will." Encyclopedia of Consciousness. Ed. William P. Banks. Vol. 1. Elsevier, 2009.

It may be worth providing the source type to distinguish a film from a book or play.

In-text:

The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas presents two very different experiences of childhood.
OR
Herman directs an emotional story of…

Works cited/ bibliography:

The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas. Dir. Mark Herman. Miramax Films, 2008. Film.


OR

Herman, Mark, dir. The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas. Miramax Films, 2008. Film.

In-text:
(Great Britain. Dept. for Education 36) Or (GB. Dept. for Ed. 36)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Great Britain. Department for Education. What is the Research Evidence on Writing? DFE-RR238.
   Dept. for Education, 2012. 

Graph, chart, table or figure (print copy)

In-text:
[INSERT FIGURE/ TABLE]
Fig. 1. E. K. Mickson, photograph from When the Heart Decides (1966); rpt. in Stephanie Newell, Ghanaian Popular Fiction: ‘Thrilling Discoveries in Conjugal Life’ and Other Tales (James Curry, 2000; 7.1).

Works cited/ bibliography:

Newell, Stephanie. Ghanaian Popular Fiction: ‘Thrilling Discoveries in Conjugal Life’ and Other Tales. James Curry, 2000. 


‘rpt.’ stands for ‘reprinted’


Graph, chart, table or figure (online)

In-text:
[INSERT TABLE/ FIGURE]
Fig. 1. Word count by genre. "Shakespeare Text Statistics," OpenSource Shakespeare, (2013).

Works cited/ bibliography:

“Shakespeare Text Statistics.” OpenSource Shakespeare, George Mason
   Uni, 2013. http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/stats/. Accessed 10 March 2017

Interview (conducted by someone else)

If referring to an interview conducted by someone else that has been published in such as a newspaper or journal you can reference in the following way:

In-text:
(Beard, 2012)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Beard, Mary. Interview. “A Roman Holiday with Cicero (and Mr Hot Sex, too).” By Matthew Reisz.
   Times Higher Education. 19 Apr. 2012. pp. 48-49. 

 


Interview (conducted yourself)

If referring to an interview you have conducted as part of your research, consideration needs to be given to confidentiality and interviewee anonymity, as appropriate.

In-text:
During an interview in his study, Smith recalled…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Smith, Jim. Personal interview. 2 Mar. 2012.

In-text:
In his lecture, Jones proposed…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Jones, Nick. “The Self and how to Know it.” Know Thyself Open Course. U of York, 3 Nov.
    2011. Lecture.

In-text:
(Jones 2)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Jones, N. (2011). “The Self and how to Know it”. Know Thyself Open Course. Lecture notes. U of York. pp. 1-3. 

In-text:
In correspondence with the author, Johnson suggested…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Johnson, Irene. Letter to the author. 3 June 2013. MS.


Use ‘MS.’ or ‘TS.’ At the end to denote if the letter is a manuscript (handwritten) or typescript (typed).

Each one will have titles and references within it or you can refer to the actual microfiche record number and where it is stored. This is an example of a historical periodical.

In-text:
(Brown 19)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Brown, J. Freemason’s Magazine. J. W. Bunney, 1794. Microform. The Eighteenth Century. Reel 16298. Raymond Burton Library, University of York.

In-text:

The trio performed Vitebsk as part of a programme of…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Vitebsk. By Aaron Copland. Perf. Sasaki Trio. Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall, York. 18 Jan. 2012.
   Performance.


'Perf.’ refers to the performers of the piece cited

In-text:
The original story of Pucinni’s Tosca

Works cited/ bibliography:

Puccini, G. Tosca. 1900. Milan: Ricardi, 1980. Score.

In-text:
Shepherd Group provides a unique insight into…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Shepherd Group. The Construction of the University of York. universityofyorkuk.
   YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vAfb7XZonrY. Accessed 10 March 2017.  

In-text:
Monet’s The Water-Lily Pond demonstrates the artist’s…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Monet, Claude. The Water-Lily Pond. 1889. Painting. National Gallery, London.

In-text:
(Graduate Students’ Association 3)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Graduate Guide 2013. Graduate students' Association, University of York, 2013. 

In-text:
(Online Safety Bill 2.1.a)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Online Safety Bill. (HL) 2013-14, 19.


The (HL) stands for House of Lords, for a Bill originating in the House of Lords. (HC) shows the Bill originates in the House of Commons. The date represents the parliamentary session and the number is the number of the Bill. Titles of Bills are not italicised in text or in the works cited/ bibliography.

In-text:
Berberet and Bates patented their device…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Berberet, S., and M. Bates. Fitting for plumbing fixture. US Patent D582022. 2 Dec. 2008.

To cite and reference the programme for a performance such as a play, dance or concert, use the following example:

In-text:
(Foster n.pag)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Foster, Nikolai. “A Beautiful Re-discovery”. Theatre prog. Beautiful Thing. N. pag. West
   Yorkshire Playhouse. 3-8 June 2013.

The reference is for an authored contribution within the overall performance programme. ‘N. pag.’ in this example denotes no pagination, that is, page numbering.

In-text:
Jarche’s Miner with Pit Pony evocatively recalls…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Jarche, J. Miner with Pit Pony. 1931. Photograph. National Media Museum, Bradford.

In-text:
Yes, Prime Minister revived the television series, using contemporary political references.

Works cited/ bibliography:

Yes, Prime Minister. By Jonathan Lynn. Dir. Jonathan Lynn. Theatre Royal, York. 16 Apr. 2012.
   Performance.

If you are citing from a prose play, give the page number(s) for the quotation. If you are citing from a verse play, give the act, scene and line(s) quoted and separated by a full stop.

In-text - prose play:
(Beckett 26)

In-text - verse play:
Iago recognise's Othello's good nature: "..." (1.3.390-93).

Works cited/ bibliography:

Beckett, Samuel. Happy Days. Faber and Faber, 1961. 
Shakespeare, William. Othello. Ed. Jane Coles. Cambridge UP, 1992. 

In-text:
(Bairstow 3-5)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Bairstow, M. “The Storm.” English Folk Poetry: Structure and Meaning. Ed. Roger deV Renwick.
  University of Pennsylvania, 1980. 163. 

In-text:
Waters admits in his interview with Marc Maron that his trip to Lebanon had a significant impact on him....

Works cited/ bibliography:

Maron, Marc. "Roger Waters." WTF with Marc Maron. 31 October 2016. Podcast. http://www.wtfpod.com/podcast/episode-755-roger-waters?rq=roger%20waters. Accessed 10 March 2017.

In-text:
Reflecting on her career to date, Hart suggested…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Hart, Miranda. Interview by Mark Lawson. Front Row. BBC Radio 4, 6 June 2013. Radio.

These include the Bible, Talmud, Koran, Upanishads, and major classical works, such as the ancient Greek and Roman works. If you are quoting a verse or extract, you should include the detail in the text of the edition of the work you are using (and that will be in your works cited) the first time you cite from it, with the book, and specific details. 

In-text:
The film script at this point echoes the Bible: “And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.”(Good News Bible, Gen. 6.12).

Works cited/ bibliography:

Good News Bible. Rainbow Edition. Harper Collins, 2004. 

Reports (online)

In-text:
(NIACE 6)

Works cited/ bibliography:

NIACE. Work, Society and Lifelong Literacy: Report of the Inquiry into Adult Literacy in England. 2011. http://shop.niace.org.uk/media/catalog/product/l/i/literacy_inquiry_-  _exec_summary-web.pdf. Accessed 10 March 2017.

 


Reports (hard copy)

In-text:
(Higher Education Academy 5)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Higher Education Academy. Ethnicity, Gender and Degree Attainment Project: Final Report. 
   Higher Education Academy/ Equality Challenge Unit, 2008. 

This format is for when you read a more recent version of an older work. In the works cited/ bibliography insert the original publication date before the publication information.

In-text:
(Dickens 29)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Dickens, Charles. Oliver Twist. 1846. Broadview Press, 2005.

In-text:
(Warner 16)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Warner, M. “Travelling Text”. Rev. of The Arabian Nights: Tales of 1001 Nights, trans. by Malcolm,
   C. Lyons. London Review of Books, vol 30, no.24, 2008, pp. 15-16. 

In-text:
Belle and Sebastian’s “Wrapped up in Books” provides the listener with…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Belle and Sebastian. “Wrapped up in Books”. Dear Catastrophe Waitress, Rough Trade, 2003. CD.

In-text:
British Standard Recommendations for Citation of Unpublished Documents details…

Works cited/ bibliography:

BS 6371:1983. Recommendations for Citation of Unpublished Documents. British Standard, 1983.

In-text:
In a conversation with the author, Johnson discussed…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Johnson, Irene. Telephone conversation with the author, 3 June 2013.

The title of the programme is given in italics and the title of the episode in quotation marks

In-text:
The edition of Panorama “Britain’s Crimes of Honour” explored…

Works cited/ bibliography:

“Britain’s Crimes of Honour”. Panorama. BBC1, 19 Mar. 2012. Television.

In-text:
In correspondence with the author, Johnson suggested…

Works cited/ bibliography:

Johnson, Irene. Message to the author. 3 June 2013. Text message.

In-text:
(Rice 58)

Works cited/ bibliography:

Rice, L.E. “Medieval Mysteries in the Modern World: Contemporary Stagings of the York Mystery
   Plays.” Diss. University of York, 2008. 

In-text, use either the proper name of the author where known, or if not, just the Twitter pseudonym. In the works cited/ bibliography, give the author’s name if known with the pseudonym in ( )

In-text:
Trump went as far as to claim that the Chinese invented climate change. 

Works cited/ bibliography:

@realDonaldTrump. "The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to  make manufacturing non-competitive." Twitter, 6 Nov 2012.  https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/265895292191248385?lang=en-gb

In-text:
The blog was compiled following ELDT guidelines…

Works cited/ bibliography:

ELDT. Blogs in Yorkshare: An Overview. University of York, n.d. Accessed 19 Apr. 2012.
   https://vle.york.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/institution/E-Learning%20Development%20Team
   /Guides/Bb%20Blog%20--%20Overview.html. Accessed 19 April 2012.

‘n.d.’ denotes that the particular page is undated

In-text:
“Against the Day” is available in at least two Japanese translations…

Works cited/ bibliography:

“Against the Day”. Pynchon Wiki. 1 Dec. 2010. http://against-the-day.pynchonwiki.com/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page. Accessed 10 March 2017.