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Subject Guides

Referencing styles - a Practical Guide

Harvard

Harvard referencing style

Used by: Archaeology, Biochemistry (as well as Vancouver), Biology (as well as Vancouver), Economics, Environment, Health Sciences, HYMS (as well as Vancouver), Management, Philosophy (as well as MLA), Politics, Sociology, Social Policy and Social Work, Theatre, Film, Television and Interactive Media (as well as MHRA)

Introduction to Harvard referencing style

The Harvard style originated at Harvard University. It's been adapted by individual institutions, and there is no set manual or formatting rules, so it is extremely important to check and follow your department's specific regulations.

In-text citations

Information from sources in the text is shown with in-text citations that include the author's surname and the publication year (and a page number in some situations). These can appear after the information, or integrated into the sentence:

Passive tutorials (Anderson & Wilson, 2009) or text-based resources (Sachs et al., 2013) can be as effective as interactive resources.
Parramore (2019) discusses online active learning in more depth...


The in-text citation examples given throughout this guide use the (Neville, 2010) version.

Reference list

The reference list at the end of the document includes the full details of each source so the reader can find them themselves. The list is organised alphabetically by author surname. 

The information to include depends on the types of source - see the examples on this page.

Departmental variations

Some departments use their own variations on the Harvard style - if this is the case, details will usually be given on course materials.

Here are some departmental variations:

Archaeology prefer students to use page numbers for all in-text citations unless students are referring to a complete book in a very general sense. Anything more specific should have a page number. Archaeology also require the following in-text citation punctuation: (Lee 2012, 236) for in-text citation with page number and (Lee 2012) for in-text citation without page number.

Environment ask that for multi-authored sources, given in the reference list, that the first 10 named authors are listed before the use of 'et al.' to indicate additional named authors.

Useful resources

Guidance for all source types

This guidance applies to all source types.


1 author

In-text: (Becker, 2007)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Becker, H. S. (2007). Writing for social scientists: how to start and finish your thesis, book, or article. 2nd edn. London: The University of Chicago Press.

2 authors

List both authors in the order they appear in the publication. Use 'and' between names.

In-text: (Peck and Coyle, 2005)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Peck, J. and Coyle, M. (2005). The student's guide to writing. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

3 authors

In the reference list and the first citation, list all authors in the order they appear in the publication. Use 'and' between names. In subsequent citations, give the first author's name followed by et al. (the full stop is important!).

In-text

  • first citation: (Fillit, Rockwood and Woodhouse, 2010)
  • subsequent citations: (Fillit et al., 2010)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Fillit, H., Rockwood, K. and Woodhouse, K. (Eds.). (2010). Brocklehurst's textbook of geriatric medicine and gerontology. Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier.

4+ authors

In all in-text citations, give the first author's name followed by et al. (the full stop is important!). In the reference list, you can either include all author names or include the first author name followed by et al. - be consistent in what you choose.

In-text: (Moore et al., 2010)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Moore, S., Neville, C., Murphy, M., and Connolly, C. (2010). The ultimate study skills handbook. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

OR

Moore, S., et al. (2010). The ultimate study skills handbook. Maidenhead: Open University Press

If you are synthesising a number of sources to support your argument you may want to use a number of sources in one in-text citation. For example:

As is widely stated in the literature... (Ryan, 2016; Davies, 2011; Warwick, 2007).

They should appear in date order, the most recent one first. 

If an author (or a group of authors) have more than one publications in the same year, add lower-case letters (a, b, c, etc.) to the year to differentiate between them. Add a to the first source cited, b to the second course and so on.  For example:

In-text: (Carroll, 2007a; Carroll 2007b)

Bibliography/ reference list:

Carroll, J. (2007a). A handbook for deterring plagiarism in higher education. Oxford: Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development, Oxford Brookes University.
Carroll, J. (2007b). Do national statistics about plagiarism tell you about your students? LINK Newsletter on Academic Integrity. The Hospitality, Sport and Leisure Subject Centre, 18, 3-9.

No author name

It is important to use quality sources to support your arguments and so you should carefully consider the value of using any source when you cannot identify its author.

For online sources, look carefully for named contributors, such as in the ‘about us’ sections. For printed material look carefully at the publication/ copyright information, which is often on the inside cover of a book or back page of a report. If you can't locate the information you could use the name of the organisation (eg, OECD) for the author. Don't include a URL in a citation.


No publication date

Knowing when a source was created, published, or last updated is important as this helps you to determine the relevance and reliability of the source. 

For online sources look carefully for created and/ or last updated dates on the page(s) you are using and similarly look carefully for named contributors, such as in the ‘about us’ sections. For printed material, especially historical sources where the exact date is unclear you could use ‘circa’ or ‘c’ before the date to indicate the approximate date of publication. For example:

Jones, M. (circa 1897). Memories of the diamond jubilee. London: Back Street Press.

Quotations are word-for-word text included in your work and must be clearly distinguished from your own words and ideas. Quotations are word-for-word text included in your work and must be clearly distinguished from your own words and ideas. You must also include the page number(s) in the in-text citation.


Short quotations (less than 40 words)

Use a brief phrase within your paragraph or sentence to introduce the quotation before including it inside double quotation marks “ “. For example:

As Neville (2010) emphasises, “you should cite all sources and present full details of these in your list of references” (p.37).

 


Longer quotations (of 40 words or more)

Use block quotation, without quotation marks, but clearly indented to indicate these words are not your own. For example:

Neville (2010, p. 38) comments that:
It can sometimes be difficult, if not impossible, to avoid using some of the author’s original words, particularly those that describe or label phenomena. However, you need to avoid copying out what the author said, word for word. Choose words that you feel give a true impression of the author’s original ideas or action.

A secondary reference is given when you are referring to a source which you have not read yourself, but have read about in another source, for example referring to Jones’ work that you have read about in Smith. 

Avoid using secondary references wherever possible and locate the original source and reference that. Only give a secondary reference where this is not possible and you deem it essential to use the material. It is important to think carefully about using secondary references as the explanation or interpretation of that source by the author you have read may not be accurate.

If it is essential to use a secondary reference follow:

In-text: Campell (1976) highlighted…(as cited in Becker, 2007, p.178)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Becker, H. S. (2007). Writing for social scientists: how to start and finish your thesis, book, or article. 2nd edn. London: The University of Chicago Press.

Only the source you have actually read is referenced in the bibliography/ reference list

It is important to give a page number to an in-text citation in the following circumstances:

  • when quoting directly
  • when referring to a specific detail in a text (for example, a specific theory or idea, an illustration, a table, a set of statistics).

This might mean giving an individual page number or a small range of pages from which you have taken the information. Giving page numbers enables the reader to locate the specific item to which you refer.

You should only capitalise the first letter of the first word of a book, journal article etc. The exception is the names of organisations.

Usually in-text citations will be included in your word count as they are integral to your argument. This may vary depending on the assignment you are writing and you should confirm this with your module tutor. If in-text citations are included this does not mean you should leave out citations where they are appropriate.

You can use the following abbreviations in Harvard style citations and references:

  • ch./chap. (chapter)
  • ed. (edition)
  • Ed./Eds. (editor/editors)
  • et al. (and others)
  • n.d. (no date)
  • no. (issue number)
  • p. (single page)
  • pp. (page range)
  • ser. (series)
  • supp. (supplement)
  • tab. (table)
  • vol. (volume)

References are the items you have read and specifically referred to (or cited) in your assignment. You are expected to list these references at the end of your assignment, this is called a reference list or bibliography.

These terms are sometimes used in slightly different ways:

  • a reference list will include all the references that you have cited in the text.
  • a bibliography is sometimes used to refer to a list of everything you consulted in preparation for writing your assignment, whether or not you referred specifically to it in the assignment.

You would normally only have one list, headed ‘references’ or ‘bibliography’, and you should check with your department which you are required to provide.

Commonly used sources

Examples of in-text citations and reference list entries for key source types.

Use these examples alongside the information given in the 'Guidance for all source types' box. Pay particular attention to the guidance on formatting for one, two or more authors.

In-text citation: (Peck and Coyle, 2005)

Reference list:

Information to include
Author(s) name, initials. (year). Name of book. Place: Publisher name.

Peck, J. and Coyle, M. (2005). The student's guide to writing. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

For a translated book or a book published in another language, see the examples below.

Chapter in an edited book

In-text citation: (Dobel, 2005)

Reference list:

Information to include
Chapter author(s) surname, initials. (year). Title of chapter. In editor(s) surname, initials (Ed/Eds.), Title of edited book. Place: Publisher name, pp. page numbers

Dobel, J. P. (2005). Public management as ethics. In Ferlie,E., Lynn Jr, L.E. and Pollitt, C. (Eds). The Oxford handbook of public management. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 156-181.

Edited book as a whole

In-text citation: first citation (Daniels, Lauder, & Porter, 2009), subsequent citation (Daniels et al., 2009)

Reference list:

Information to include
Editor(s) surname, initials (Ed/Eds.). (year). Title of edited book. Place: Publisher name.

Fillit, H., Rockwood, K. and Woodhouse, K. (Eds.). (2010). Brocklehurst's textbook of geriatric medicine and gerontology. Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier.

Interview (conducted by another person)

If referring to an interview conducted by someone else that has been published in such as a newspaper or journal you can reference in the following way

In-text: (Beard, 2012) 

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Beard, M. (2012). A Roman holiday with Cicero (and Mr Hot Sex, too). Interview with M. Reisz. Times Higher Education, 19 April 2012, p.48-49.

Interview (conducted yourself)

If referring to an interview you have conducted as part of your research you should give a citation, perhaps also signposting the reader to a transcript attached as an appendix, and a full reference. Consideration also needs to be given to confidentiality and interviewee anonymity as appropriate.

In-text: (Smith, 2012)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Smith, J. (2012). Personal interview. Resource evaluation survey for BA dissertation. At University of York, with A. Jones, 2 March 2012 (see appendix 1).

Journal paper (electronic)

Most journal papers are now available in electronic form, usually with a DOI (a special type of link). If there isn't a DOI, include the URL instead.

In-text: (Fitch, Gaffney & Thomson, 2007)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Information to include
Author(s) surname, initials. (year). Title of paper. Name of journal. volume(issue). page numbers. [Online]. Available at: DOI [Accessed day Month year].

Fitch, S., Gaffney, V. and Thomson, K. (2007). In sight of Doggerland: from speculative survey to landscape exploration. Internet Archaeology, 22. [Online]. Available at: http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue22/fitch_index.html [Accessed 15 June 2011].

Journal paper (printed copy)

In-text: (Selman, 2012)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Information to include
Author(s) surname, initials. (year). Title of paper. Name of journal. volume(issue). page numbers.

Selman, P. (2012). The global decline of intercountry adoption: what lies ahead? Social Policy and Society, 11(03), 381-397.

Newspaper or magazine article

Include the most precise date of publication given - usually full date for newspaper articles, month and year for magazines.

In-text: (Brady and Dutta, 2012; Clarkson, 2008)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Information to include
Author surname and initial. (year). Title of article. Name of newspaper/magazine. day month year, pp. page numbers.

Brady, B. and Dutta, K. (2012). 45,000 caught cheating at Britain's universities. The Independent on Sunday, 11 March 2012, pp. 4-5.
Clarkson, S. (2008). Wanted: 25 hours in the day. Red Magazine, December 2008, pp. 91-94.

Articles without named author

Give the name of the newspaper or magazine in place of the author name.

In-text: (The Guardian, 2012)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Information to include
Name of newspaper/magazine (year).  Editorial: Title of article, day month year, pp. page numbers.

Guardian (2012). Editorial: French elections. Bitter-sweet victory for the left, 23 April 2012, p. 26.

Online articles

In-text: (Laurance, 2013)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Information to include
Author surname and initial. (year). Title of article. Name of newspaper/magazine. [Online] day month year. Available at: URL  [Accessed day month year].

Laurance, J. (2013). Liverpool care pathway: a way of death worth fighting for? The Independent. [Online]. 08 January 2013. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/liverpool-care-pathway-a-way-of-death-worth-fighting-for-8443348.html [Accessed 14 January 2013].

Include Last updated: if the page is likely to be updated (eg, news sites)


Website with author

In-text: (Peston, 2012)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Information needed:
Author(s) name, initial. (year). Name of specific webpage. [Online]. Name of full website. Last updated: day month year. Available at: URL [Accessed day month year].

Peston, R. (2012). Can Tesco grow again in Britain? [Online]. BBC News. Last updated: 18 April 2012. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-17748586 [Accessed 10 March 2017].

Website without named author

In-text: (St John Ambulance, 2011)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Information needed:
Organisation. (year). Name of specific webpage. [Online]. Name of full website. Name of full website. Last updated: day month year. Available at: URL [Accessed day month year].

St John Ambulance (2011). The difference first aid makes. [Online]. St John Ambulance, UK. Available at: http://www.sja.org.uk/sja/support-us/the-difference.aspx [Accessed 10 March 2017].

Further sources

Examples of in-text citations and reference list entries for other source types.

Use these examples alongside the information given in the 'Guidance for all source types' box. Pay particular attention to the guidance on formatting for one, two or more authors.

In-text: (Education Act, 2011)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Education Act 2011, ch. 21. London: The Stationery Office.

The (c.21) refers to the chapter, the number of the Act according to those passed during the parliamentary session.

In-text: (Master Atlas of Greater London, 2007)

Bibliography/ Reference List: 

Master atlas of Greater London. (2007). 11th ed. Sevenoaks: Geographer's A-Z Map Company.

In-text: (Carswell, 2012)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Carswell, D. (2012). Do ministers run the Treasury or does the Treasury run ministers? 15 April 2012. Douglas Carswell's Blog. [Online]. Available at: http://www.talkcarswell.com/disqus.aspx?id=2328 [Accessed 20 April 2011].

In-text: (Schwortz, 1978)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Schwortz, B. (1978). The shroud of Turin: carbon dated to the fourteenth century. In J.C. Robinson. The Turin Shroud. (2004). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p.7.

If you are reading an English language version of a book originally published in another language follow this example.

In-text: (Larsson, 2009)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Larsson, S. (2009). The girl who played with fire. Translated from the Swedish by R. Keeland. London: MacLehose Press.

Follow this example if you need to reference a book that you read in another language.

In-text: (Hoops, 1932)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Hoops, J. (1932). Kommentar zum Beowulf. [Commentary on Beowulf]. Heidelberg: Carl Winters Universitatsbuchhandlung.

In-text: (Autodesk, 2011)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Autodesk (2011). AutoCAD 2013. [Computer program]. Available http://usa.autodesk.com/autocad/ [Accessed 20 April 2012].

Conference proceedings (full)

In-text: (ALT-C, 2011)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

ALT-C(2011). Thriving in a colder and more challenging climate. Hawkridge, D., Ng, K. and Verjans, S. eds. The 18th annual conference of the Association for Learning Technology (ALT-C 2011), University of Leeds, Leeds, 6-8 September. ALT.

Conference paper (unpublished)

In-text: (Pettitt, 2008)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Pettitt, R. (2008). Parliament of the movement? The changing fortunes of the Labour Party Conference. Unpublished paper presented at ‘Democracy, governance and conflict: dilemmas of theory and practice’. 58th Political Studies Association Conference. 1-3 April 2008. Swansea.

TV series

In-text: (Gavin and Stacey, 2007)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Gavin and Stacey (2007). Complete Series 1. [DVD]. London: BBC DVD.

Film

Either cite the name of the film or the director

In-text: (Lloyd, 2008) OR (Mamma Mia, 2008)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Mamma Mia (2008). [DVD film]. London: Universal Pictures UK.

OR

Lloyd, P. (Director). (2008). Mamma Mia. [DVD film]. London: Universal Pictures UK.

In-text: (Beauty and the Beast, 2012)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Beauty and the Beast (2012). [Ballet]. D. Nixon (Choreographer). Leeds: Northern Ballet.

Database (online, DVD or CD) with author

Change [Online] to [CD] or [DVD] if necessary.

In-text: (Ralchenko, Kramida and Reader, 2011)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Ralchenko, Y., Kramida, A. and Reader, J. (2011). NIST atomic spectra database. Version 4. [Online]. Available at: http://www.nist.gov/pml/data/asd.cfm [Accessed 21 April 2012].

Database (online, DVD or CD) without named author

Change [Online] to [CD] or [DVD] if necessary.

In-text: (Oxford language dictionaries online, 2007)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Oxford language dictionaries online (2007). [Online]. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available at: http://www.oxfordlanguagedictionaries.com/ [Accessed 21 April 2012].

In-text: (Larkham, 2011)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Larkham, T. (2011). The diary of Thomas Larkham, 1647-1669. S. Hardman Moore, ed. Woodbridge: Boydell.

Dictionary/reference book with editor

In-text: (Marcovitch, 2005)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Marcovitch, H. (2005). Black’s medical dictionary. London: A and C Black.

Dictionary/reference book without editor

In-text: (Paperback Oxford English dictionary, 2006)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Paperback Oxford English dictionary (2006). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

E-book (online)

If page markers are not available on the e-book version you are using cite the chapter for specific references to the source (eg “…” (Schlick, 2010, ch.1)).

In-text: (Schlick, 2010)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Schlick, T. (2010). Molecular modelling and simulation: an interdisciplinary guide. [Online]. Springer. Available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p406v4/#section=745673&page=1 [Accessed 5 July 2011].

E-book (using e-reader)

If viewing an e-book using an e-book reader it is important to reference the specific version of the publication for this reader. If page markers are not available on the e-book version you are using cite the chapter for specific references to the source (eg “quote” (Collins, 2011, ch.3)).

In-text: (Collins, 2011)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Collins, S. (2011). The hunger games. [Kindle]. Scholastic Fiction. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/B005EGXTEE/ref=s9_simh_gw_p351_d2_g351_i4?pf_rd_m=A3P5ROKL5A1OLE&pf_rd_s=center-2&pf_rd_r=0V3C55RJ3DB412MK834J&pf_rd_t=101&pf_rd_p=467128533&pf_rd_i=468294 [Accessed 21 April 2012].

In-text: (Johnson, 2009)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Johnson, I. (2009). Email to A. Lee re. essay tips, 3 June 2009.examples

Encyclopedia (full book)

In-text: (Encyclopedia of consciousness, 2009)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Encyclopedia of consciousness (2009). Vol. 1. London: Elsevier.

Encyclopedia (single entry)

In-text: (Brooks, 2004)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Brooks, F. (2004). Our world. In The Usbourne children’s encyclopaedia. London: Usbourne, pp.7-52.

examples

examples

In-text: (Lloyd, 2008) OR (Mamma Mia, 2008)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Mamma Mia (2008). [Film]. London: Universal Pictures UK.

OR

Lloyd, P. (Director). (2008). Mamma Mia. [Film]. London: Universal Pictures UK.

In-text: (Great Britain. Defra, 2007)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Great Britain. Defra (2007). Waste strategy for England 2007. Cm. 7086. London: The Stationery Office.

You can omit ‘Great Britain’ if you are only referring to UK central government publications and this will be clear to your reader. If you are referring to publications by devolved government bodies or to international government publications you should state the jurisdictions. The 'Cm. 7086' refers to the reference number given to this particular document. If you can locate the Cm. number you should include it.

Graph/Chart/Table/Figure (print copy)

Give the title for the table/ figure etc and include a full in-text citation

In-text: [INSERT IMAGE] The ‘Soloman four-group’ design (Field and Hole, 2010, p. 79, fig. 3.7)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Field, A. and Hole, G. (2010). How to design and report experiments. London: SAGE.

 


Graph/Chart/Table/Figure (online)

Give the title for the table/ figure etc and include a full in-text citation

In-text: [INSERT IMAGE] Youths 16-24 claiming, March 2012 rate (The Guardian, 2012).

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Guardian (2012). Youths 16-24 claiming, March 2012 rate. [Online]. The Guardian. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/interactive/2011/nov/16/youth-unemployment-map. [Accessed 21 April 2012].

In-text: (Jones, 2011).

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Jones, N. (2011). Lecture: The self and how to know it. Know thyself open course.York: University of York, 3 November 2011.

In-text: (Jones, 2011)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Jones, N. (2011). The self and how to know it. Know thyself open course lecture notes, p.1-3, University of York, Department of Philosophy.

In-text: (Johnson, 2011)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Johnson, I. (2011). Letter to A. Lee re concerns about employee engagement, 4 June 2011.

Each one will have titles and references within it or you can refer to the actual microfiche record number, where it is stored and when accessed. This is an example of conference proceedings.

In-text: In-text: (AFIPS, 1968)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

AFIPS (1968). American Federation of Information Processing Societies. Conference Proceedings, vol. 33, 1968, Montvale, N.J. [Microfiche] Available J.B. Morrell Library, University of York.

In-text: (Copland, 2012)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Copland, A. (2012). Vitebsk. Sasaki Trio. York: Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall, 18 January 2012.

In-text: (Puccini, 1980)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Puccini, G. (1980). Tosca. Edited by M. Parenti. Milan: Ricardi. (Original work published 1900). 

In-text: (Cambridgeshire County Council/BBC, 2010)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Cambridgeshire County Council/BBC. (2010). Life as a social worker in Cambridgeshire. [Video]. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mwp9oUoeJzI [Accessed 5 July 2010].

In-text: (Monet, 1889)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Monet, C. (1889). The water-lily pond. [Painting]. London: National Gallery.

In-text (first mention): (Graduate Students' Association, 2011)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Graduate Students’ Association. (2011). Graduate Guide 2011. York: GSA, University of York.

In-text: (Finance (No. 4) Bill, 2010-2012)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Finance (No. 4) Bill. HC Bill 2010-2012 [325]. London: The Stationary Office.

The HC stands for House of Commons, with HL being used for Bills originating in the House of Lords. The date represents the parliamentary session and the number in [ ] the number of the bill.

In-text: (Berberet and Bates, 2008)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Berberet, S. and Bates, M. (2008). Fitting for plumbing fixture. US Patent D582022. 2 December 2008.

In-text: (Jarche, 1931)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Jarche, J. (1931). Miner with pit pony. [Photograph]. Bradford: National Media Museum.

In-text: (Lynn & Jay, 2012)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Lynn, J. & Jay, A. (2012, April 16). Yes, Prime Minister [Play]. Theatre Royal, York. Performers: Graham Seed and Michael Simkins. Director: Jonathan Lynn.

In-text: (Webster, 1998)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Webster, J. (1998). The white devil. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

In-text: (Bairstow, 1980)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Bairstow, M. (1980). The storm. In R. deV Renwick English folk poetry: structure and meaning. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, p.163.

In-text: 
Waters admits in his interview on the WTF podcast (Maron, 2016) that his trip to Lebanon had a significant impact on him...

Works cited/ bibliography:

Maron, M. (2016) "Roger Waters". WTF with Marc Maron. 31 October 2016. Podcast. Available at http://www.wtfpod.com/podcast/episode-755-roger-waters?rq=roger%20waters. [Accessed 10 March 2017.]

In-text: (BBC Radio 4, 2008).

Bibliography/ Reference List:

BBC Radio 4 (2008). A good read. 2 December 2008.

Neville (2010, p.161) suggests the following process for using religious or sacred works in your writing:

These include the Bible, Talmud, Koran, Upanishads, and major classical works, such as the ancient Greek and Roman works. If you are simply quoting a verse or extract, you do not need to give full reference entries. Instead, you should include the detail in the text of your assignment, for example:

The film script at this point echoes the Bible: ‘And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth’.

(Gen. 6:12) [the in-text citation is for the book of Genesis, chapter 6, verse 12]

However, if you were referring to a particular edition for a significant reason, it could be listed in full in the main references, eg:

Good News Bible (2004). Rainbow Edition. New York: Harper Collins.

Report (online)

In-text: (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2008)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008). NMC (Constitution) Order 2008. Nursing and Midwifery Council. [Online]. Available at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/www.dh.gov.uk/en/Consultations/Liveconsultations/DH_086049 [Accessed 10 March 2017].

 


Report (hard copy)

In-text: (Higher Education Academy, 2008)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Higher Education Academy (2008). Ethnicity, gender and degree attainment project: final report. York: Higher Education Academy/ Equality Challenge Unit.

This format is for when you read a more recent version of an older work. In-text, the date of the original publication is given first, with the later version in [ ], with any page reference to this newer version following. In the bibliography/ reference list you give the date and details of the version you read, with the original publisher and date at the end of the reference.

In-text: (Dickens, 1846 [2005], p.29)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Dickens, C. (2005). Oliver Twist. Plymouth: Broadview Press. (Originally published by Bradbury and Evans, 1846).

In-text: (Warner, 2008)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Warner, M. (2008). Travelling text. Review of The Arabian nights: Tales of 1001 nights, translated by M. Lyons. London Review of Books. 30 (24), pp. 15-16.

In-text: (Belle & Sebastian, 2003, track 8)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Belle and Sebastian (2003). Wrapped up in books. On: Dear catastrophe waitress [CD]. London: Rough Trade Music.

This should be used where it is important the institution from which the source originates should not be named, in to order protect corporate or individual confidentiality. For example, where a policy, procedure or care plan is being used.

In-text:(NHS Trust, 1999) or, for example: “This was in accordance with the NHS Trust's (Name withheld, 1999) disciplinary policy”.

Bibliography/ Reference List:

NHS Trust (Name withheld, 1999). Disciplinary policy.

In-text: (British Standards Institute, 2006)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

BSEN14975 (2006). Loft ladders: requirements, marking and testing. London: British Standards Institute.

In-text: (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988, SI 1988/1657.

In-text: (Johnson, 2012)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Johnson, I. (2012). Telephone conversation with the author, 4 January 2012.

In-text: (Panorama: Britain's Crimes of Honour, 2012)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Panorama. (2012). Britain’s crimes of honour. BBC1, 19 March 2012.

In-text: (Johnson, 2007)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Johnson, I. (2007). Text message to A. Lee, 4 July 2007.

In-text: (Chen, 2011)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Chen, C. I. (2011). Impacts of climate warming on range shifts with emphasis on tropical mountains. Unpublished: University of York. PhD.

Use either the proper name of the author or Twitter pseudonym. In the following example either (Trump, 2012) or (@realDonaldTrump, 2012) can be used in-text and in the Bibliography/ Reference List reference.

In-text:
Trump (2012) went as far as to claim that the Chinese invented climate change in a tweet in 2012.

Bibliography/ Reference list:

@realDonaldTrump (2012) "The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make manufacturing non-competitive." Twitter, 6 Nov 2012. Available at https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/265895292191248385?lang=en-gb [Accessed 10 March 2017].

or

Trump, D. (2012) "The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make manufacturing non-competitive." Twitter, 6 Nov 2012. Available at https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/265895292191248385?lang=en-gb [Accessed 10 March 2017].

In-text: (ELDT, 2012)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

ELDT (2012). Help Guide: Blogs in Yorkshare: an overview. University of York [Online]. Available at https://vle.york.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/institution/E-Learning/Development/Team/Guides/Bb/Blog/--/Overview.html [Accessed 19 April 2012].

In-text: (Appropedia, 2011)

Bibliography/ Reference List:

Appropedia (2011). Water and sanitation for developing countries. Available at http://www.appropedia.org/Category:Water_and_sanitation_for_developing_countries [Accessed 10 March 2017].