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Referencing styles - a Practical Guide

OSCOLA

OSCOLA referencing style

Used by: the York Law School

Introduction to OSCOLA referencing style

The Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) was developed at Oxford University, and is widely used by law schools and publishers to acknowledge source information.

In-text citations & footnotes

OSCOLA uses a footnote citation system.

In the text, a number in superscript1 is added at the end of a sentence and after the punctuation. 

Neville states that The Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal was involved in developing the OSCOLA referencing system.1


The reference is then given in the footnote at the bottom of the page.

1 Colin Neville, The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism  (2nd edn, OU Press 2010).


Where you cite an author of a secondary source their name should appear as it does on the publication with first name/ initials before surname.

For more detailed information, see OSCOLA 1.1 and 1.2

Bibliography

The bibliography at the end of the document includes the full details of each source so the reader can find them themselves. The list is organised by type of source, and then alphabetically. See below for more details on organising the bibliography.

The information to include depends on the types of source - see the examples.

Useful resources

Guidance for all source types

Citing a source multiple times in the same document

For a case, cite in full the first time. For further references to the case, use a short form of the case name and a cross-citation in brackets to the original footnote. If the case name is included in the text, omit it in the footnote.

Niemietz v Germany (1992) 116 EHRR 97 


If the subsequent citation is directly after the full citation, simply use the term ‘ibid’. If pinpointing specific paragraphs, place these in square brackets.

2 ibid [8] – [10]

 

When referring to a previous citation a number of footnotes back, use the short version of the case and add n as an abbreviation signposting the number of the footnote

8 Niemietz (n 1) 


For subsequent citation of legislation, abbreviations are acceptable. For subsequent citation of secondary sources, you only need the author’s surname.

For more detailed information see OSCOLA 1.2

Citing multiple sources in the same footnote

For multiple references within one footnote use semi-colons to distinguish between them and put them in chronological order with the oldest first. For example, this footnote refers to two cases:

1 R v White [2010] EWCA Crim 978 (CA (Crim Div)); R V Adam [2011] EWCA Crim 865 (CA (Crim Div))).


If one or more references are more relevant than the others put these first and then ‘see also’. For example:

2 Rudi Fortson, Misuse of Drugs: Offences, Confiscation and Money Laundering (5th edn, Sweet & Maxwell 2005); Barbara Vettori, Tough on Criminal Wealth (Springer 2006). See also Peter Alldridge, Money Laundering Law (Hart Publishing 2003).


Also, order the sources with legislation before cases, and primary sources before secondary.

For more detailed information, see OSCOLA 1.1 and 1.2

Using pinpoints and page numbers

A pinpoint is a precise reference to the part of a judgment or report through numbered paragraphs or page numbers. There are a number of ways you can pinpoint specific details within publications, depending on what the publication is. When citing more than one paragraph, place the numbers in square brackets. In this first example the pinpoints are at the end to paragraphs 42 and 45 of the case:

Callery v Gray [2001] EWCA Civ 1117, [2001] 1 WLR 2112 [42], [45] 


In this example for a secondary source the page number 131 is given at the end:

Colin Neville, The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism (2nd edn, OU Press 2010) 131.

 For more detailed information, see OSCOLA 2.1.6 and OSCOLA 4.2.5

Cross-citation

Cross citation is when you are referring to discussion in another part of your writing, for example on an earlier page or in a previous chapter. It is good practice to use cross citation as little as possible.

Try to be specific and use a specific footnote number (For example See n 52 for the footnote. OR: See text to n 22.)

For more detailed information see OSCOLA 1.2.2 

Direct quotes

You need to be very precise when using quotations.

 


Short quotations (less than three lines)

Use single quotation marks and include within the text. For example:

In-text

Narcotics contribute greatly to the black economy, for example ‘the value of illegal drugs transactions has been estimated at up to £1.5 billion annually’.24

Footnote

24 Peter Alldridge, Money Laundering Law (Hart Publishing 2003) citing HC Deb 30 October 2001, vol 373, col 757.

 


Longer quotations (longer than three lines)

Use an indented paragraph, no quotation marks and a line space above and below.

In-text:

When asked about the role of a newspaper’s proprietor Rupert Murdoch said:
Yes, I think sometimes it’s overestimated, but certainly they have power. Let’s face it, if an editor is sending a newspaper broke, it is the responsibility of the proprietor to step in for the sake of the journalists, for the sake of everybody.25 


Footnote

25 Leveson Inquiry: Culture, Practice and Ethics of the Press, Transcript of Morning Hearing 25 April 2012 page 17, 6-11 accessed 21 May 2012.

For more detailed information, see OSCOLA 1.5

Citing a source you've read about in a different source (secondary referencing)

This means referring to a source you have not read that you have found within another source that you are using. Try to avoid secondary referencing as it is always preferable to use the original source and you should always try to locate this.

If you find you have to use secondary referencing, in the footnote cite the source you have read, followed by ‘citing’… For example:

Peter Alldridge, Money Laundering Law (Hart Publishing 2003) citing Hentrich v France (1994) 18 EHRR 40).


In the bibliography insert only the source you have read. There is no specific guidance on this within OSCOLA. 

Naming judges

When referring to a judge within a case, use the judge’s surname followed by the correct abbreviation. (Mr or Mrs Justice Smith should be called Smith J in your text).

The exception to this rule is when the judge holds a title. A Court of Appeal Judge who is Lord or Lady Smith should be referred to as Smith LJ.

  • A House of Lords judge should be referred to as Lord or Lady Smith and should not be abbreviated.
  • A Supreme Court judge should be referred to as Lord Smith SCJ.
  • The Lord Chief Justice can be abbreviated to Lord Woolf CJ.

For more detailed information see OSCOLA 2.1.7

Using Westlaw or Lexis Library

Yyou do not need to include any information about Westlaw or Lexis Library in your citations, as this is just the portal through which you accessed the report, legislation or article. Simply reference the relevant source as you would a paper copy. 

Using Latin terms within footnotes

The only Latin term that is acceptable to use within the OSCOLA style is ‘ibid’, for the instances when you are referring to the same source in consecutive footnotes. Do not use other terms such as supra, op cit, loc cit.

For more information see OSCOLA 1.2.3 u 

Using abbreviations

OSCOLA abbreviates a wide range of legal sources and institutions.

Do not use punctuation when using an abbreviation. Eg, the Director of Public Prosecutions should appear as DPP not D.P.P.

For a comprehensive list of legal abbreviations, use the Cardiff index. You can search by abbreviation to find the title, or by title to find the abbreviation.

For more detailed information, see OSCOLA Appendix 4.2 

Commonly used sources

Examples of in-text citations and reference list entries for key source types.

Use these examples alongside the information given in the 'Guidance for all source types' box.

Act of Parliament

You should refer to the year the Act was passed rather than the year it came into force. 

Use the short title and refer to specific sections of the Act eg

In text:

Section 4(2) of the Human Rights Act 1998 states... 

 OR use s for Section in the middle of a sentence. For example:

in s 4(2) of the Human Rights Act 1998 and in ss 6-9 of that Act... 


Footnote: 

1 Bribery Act 2010 s 2 (1) (b)


You do not need to footnote an Act if you make it identifiable in the text. 

Bibliography: 
List Legislation and Cases separately in alphabetical order in the bibliography. 

Cases

See the OSCOLA guides and our Referencing with Confidence OSCOLA Guide for more details. 

Case citations including neutral citations:
List cases in the bibliography in alphabetic order of case names. Use the following format to cite cases.

Case name in italics [year] court number, [year] OR (year) volume report abbreviation first page

Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884.


If you have included the case name in the text, you do not have to include the case names in the footnote:
In text: refer to the text giving case names in italics eg: In Phipps v Boardman31 …..

Footnote:

31 [1967] 2 AC 46 [HL]
32 Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884.


Bibliography:

Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884.
Phipps v Boardman [1967] 2 AC 46 [HL]


For most sources in OSCOLA, the bibliographic format is the same as the footnote.
List legislation, cases and secondary sources in separate sections of your bibliography in alphabetical order. 

Case notes

Treat case notes with titles as if they are journal articles. Where there is no title, use the name of the case in italics instead, and add (note) at the end of the citation:

Andrew Ashworth, ‘R (Singh) v Chief Constable of the West Midlands Police’ [2006] Crim LR 441 (note)

See 3.3.2 OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

Book

Book 1 author

Capitalise the first letter of each major word of the title. Page numbers stand-alone without p or pp. use the following format for the footnote:

Information to include:
Author, Title in Italics (edition, publisher date) page.

Footnote:

15. Roger O'Keefe, International Criminal Law (3rd edn, Oxford University Press 2015) 17.


Bibliography:

O'Keefe R, International Criminal Law (Oxford University Press 2015).

 


Book 2 or 3 authors

If the book has up to three authors, include ‘and’ in between each author. Use Initials or forename unpunctuated and with no spaces followed by surname. 

Information to include:
Author, Title in Italics Capitalising Major Words (Edition, Publisher Year) page. 

Footnote: 

1 CMV Clarkson and HM Keating and SR Cunningham, Criminal Law: Text and Materials (7th edn, Sweet & Maxwell 2010).
Stephen W Mayson, Derek French and Christopher L Ryan, Mayson, French & Ryan on Company Law (18th edn, Blackstone 2001) 22.


Bibliography: 

Clarkson CMV and Keating HM and Cunningham SR, Criminal Law: Text and Materials (7th edn, Sweet & Maxwell 2010)
Mayson SW, French D and Ryan CL , Mayson, French & Ryan on Company Law (18th edn, Blackstone 2001)

See 3.2 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details. 


Book (4 or more authors)

If a book has more than three authors, include ‘and others’ after the name of the first author.

Footnote:

1 Dick Hobbs and others, Bouncers: Violence and Governance in the Night-time Economy (OUP 2005) 


Bibliography:

Hobbs D and others, Bouncers: Violence and Governance in the Night-time Economy (OUP 2005) 

Edited book (& chapters)

Chapter in an edited book

Information to include:
author, ‘Title of chapter' in editor (ed), title in italics (additional information, publisher year)

Footnote: 

1. Justine Pila, ‘The Value of Authorship in the Digital Environment’ in William H Dutton and Paul W Jeffreys (eds), World Wide Research: Reshaping the Sciences and Humanities ( 7th edn, MIT Press 2010)


Bibliography:

Pila, J, ‘The Value of Authorship in the Digital Environment’ in William H Dutton and Paul W Jeffreys (eds), World Wide Research: Reshaping the Sciences and Humanities ( 7th edn, MIT Press 2010)

See 3.2.3 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details. 

 


Edited book

Footnote:

1. Jeremy Horder (ed), Oxford Essays in Jurisprudence: Fourth Series (OUP 2000). 


Bibliography:

Horder J (ed), Oxford Essays in Jurisprudence: Fourth Series (OUP 2000)


See 3.2.2 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details. 

Journal paper

Journal article (print copy)

Footnotes:
author, | ‘title’ | [year] | journal name or abbreviation | first page of article,| specific page referred to

[OR]

author, | ‘title’ | (year) | volume | journal name or abbreviation | first page of article

Put a comma after the first page of the article if you want to refer to a particular page or set of pages:

1. JAG Griffith, ‘The Common Law and the Political Constitution’ (2001) 117 LQR 42, 64


If the year serves as the volume identifier, put the year in square brackets [ ]. If there is a separate volume number, put the year in round brackets ().

2. Paul Craig, ‘Theory, “Pure Theory” and Values in Public Law’ [2005] PL 440
3. Alison L Young, ‘In Defence of Due Deference’ (2009) 72 MLR 554


In the Young example, 72 is the volume number.

Bibliography:

Griffith JAG, ‘The Common Law and the Political Constitution’ (2001) 117 LQR 42
Young A, ‘In Defence of Due Deference’ (2009) 72 MLR 554


Omit reference to specific page numbers (other than the first page of the article) in your bibliographic entry.


Journal article (electronic copy)

If you source a publication online which is also available in hard copy, cite the hard copy version. There is no need to cite an electronic source for such a publication.

author, | ‘title’ | [year] OR (year) | volume/issue | journal name or abbreviation | <web address> | date accessed

Footnote:

Graham Greenleaf, ‘The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information’ (2010) 1(1) EJLT accessed 27 July 2010.


If the information is only available online, give the URL before the accessed date information.

Bibliography:

Greenleaf G, ‘The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information’ (2010) 1(1) EJLT <http://ejlt.org/article/view/17/39> accessed 27 July 2010

See 3.3.4 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details. 

Further sources

Examples of in-text citations and reference list entries for other source types.

Use these examples alongside the information given in the 'Guidance for all source types' box.

Bill

Cite a Bill by its title, the House in which it originated, the Parliamentary session in brackets, and the running number assigned to it. Running numbers for House of Commons Bills are put in square brackets; those for House of Lords Bills are not. When a Bill is reprinted at any stage it is given a new running number.

Title | HC Bill | (session) | [number] OR title | HL Bill | (session) | number

Footnote and bibliography: 

Academies HL Bill (2010-11) 1, cl 8(2)
Consolidated Fund HC Bill (2008–09) [5]

In the bibliography, list bills in alphabetical order under the heading Secondary Sources.

Copied from 2.4.5 OSCOLA 4th edn. 

Blog

Where there is no relevant advice elsewhere in OSCOLA, follow the general principles for secondary sources when citing websites and blogs. If there is no author identified, and it is appropriate to cite an anonymous source, begin the citation with the title in the usual way. If there is no date of publication on the website, give only the date of access.

Author, 'Web page title' (Website in Italics, Full Date) <URL> accessed Date

Footnote: 

Sarah Cole, ‘Virtual Friend Fires Employee’ (Naked Law, 1 May 2009) <http://www.nakedlaw.com/2009/05/index.html> accessed 19 November 2009.


Bibliography:

Cole S, ‘Virtual Friend Fires Employee’ (Naked Law, 1 May 2009) <http://www.nakedlaw.com/2009/05/index.html> accessed 19 November 2009

See OSCOLA 4th edn 3.4.8 for more details. 

Book (translated to English)

Peter Birks and Grant McLeod (trs), The Institutes of Justinian (Duckworth 2007)


If there is an author and translator, reference as follows:

K Zweigert and H Kötz, An Introduction to Comparative Law (Tony Weir tr, 3rd edn, OUP 1998)


See 3.2.2  OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

Book (read in another language)

Cite the primary source in the original language if you have read it in that language otherwise cite the translation. 

Footnote: 

1. Joseph Hoops, Kommentar zum Beowulf. [Commentary on Beowulf]. (Carl Winters Universitatsbuchhandlung 1932).


Bibliography: 

Hoops J, Kommentar zum Beowulf. [Commentary on Beowulf]. (Carl Winters Universitatsbuchhandlung 1932)

See 1.4 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details. 

Book review

Footnote:

Cite a book review in the same way as a journal article, but without the quote marks. For example,

1. Rowan Cruft, Title of Book Review (2011) Law & Philosophy 637.


Bibliography: 

Cruft R, Title of Book Review (2011) Law & Philosophy 637


Copied from OSCOLA FAQs

Command paper

The abbreviation preceding a command paper number depends on the year of publication:

1833–69 (C (1stseries)) 1870–99 (C (2nd series)) 1900–18 (Cd) 1919–56 (Cmd) 1957–86 (Cmnd) 1986– (Cm)

Footnotes and bibliography:

Home Office, Report of the Royal Commission on Capital Punishment (Cmd 8932, 1953) para 53
Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2008 Autumn Performance Report (Cm 7507, 2008) 54
Department for International Development, Eliminating World Poverty: Building our Common Future (White Paper, Cm 7656, 2009) ch 5

In the bibliography, list Command Papers alphabetically by author in Secondary Sources. 

For more details see 3.4.3 OSCOLA 4th ed. 

Conference papers

Ben McFarlane and Donal Nolan, ‘Remedying Reliance: The Future Development of Promissory and Proprietary Estoppel in English Law’ (Obligations III conference, Brisbane, July 2006)

See 3.4.6 OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

Dictionary

Dictionary (hard copy)

Footnote:

'no-fault compensation', Oxford Dictionary of Law (7th edn, OUP 2013).

 


Dictionary (online)

Also consider elements of the style advice for websites and blogs (section 3.4.8).

For the OED online, open the full entry for the word, and click on the Cite button (top right above the definition). Follow that example, tidying it up to make it consistent with OSCOLA styles (eg, change double quotes to single and full stops to commas, removing those that are unnecessary; change OED Online to italics; change Oxford University Press to OUP and put it before the date; and remove http:// from the web address and delete any text after the Entry number, then put angle brackets around the url):

Footnote:

'philosophy, n' (OED Online, OUP June 2013) <www.oed.com/view/Entry/142505> accessed 21 August 2013.


For other online dictionaries, follow the general advice above. You need a date of publication or at least a date of access (ie when you looked at it), as they are generally updated regularly.

Copied from OSCOLA FAQs. 

Email

When citing personal communications, such as emails and letters, give the author and recipient of the communication, and the date. If you are yourself the author or recipient of the communication, say ‘from author’ or ‘to author’ as appropriate.

Footnote:

1. Email from Amazon.co.uk to author (16 December 2008)


See 3.4.11 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details

Encyclopedia

Cite as a book but exclude author or editor and publisher. Include the edition and year. Pinpoints such as volumes and page numbers come after the publication information.

Halsbury’s Laws (5th edn, 2010) vol 57, para 53.

If citing an online encyclopedia, give the URL and date of access:

CJ Friedrich, ‘Constitutions and Constitutionalism’, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences III (1968) 319 Leslie Green, ‘Legal Positivism’, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall edn, 2009) accessed 20 November 2009
Leslie Green, ‘Legal Positivism’, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall edn, 2009) <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/legal-positivism/>accessed 2 Sept 2016. 

See OSCOLA 4th edn 3.2.6 for more details. 

Entry in a reference book

footnote: 

1. P Scratan and K Chadwick, 'Critical research', Sage Dictionary of Criminology (2001) 46.


Bibliography: 

Scratan P and Chadwick K, 'Critical research', Sage Dictionary of Criminology (2001) 


List in the bibliography in alphabetical order under Secondary Sources. 

European Court of Justice case

Case T-162/06 Kronoply v Commission [2006] OJ C212/30

European Union regulation

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/1992 establishing the standard import values for determining the entry price of certain fruit and vegetables [2015]  OJ L 290/12

Hansard & Parliamentary reports

There are three series of Hansard, one reporting debates on the floor of the House of Commons, one debates in the House of Lords, and one debates in the Public Bill committees of the House of Commons, which replaced standing committees in 2007. When referring to the first two series, cite the House abbreviation (HL or HC), followed by ‘Deb’, then the full date, the volume and the column. Use ‘col’ or ‘cols’ for column(s). In the House of Commons, written answers are indicated by the suffix ‘W’ after the column number; in the House of Lords, they are indicated by the prefix ‘WA’ before the column number.

HL Deb OR HC Deb | date, | volume, | column

HC Deb 3 February 1977, vol 389, cols 973–76 40
HC Deb 4 July 1996, vol 280, col 505W
HL Deb 21 July 2005, vol 673, col WA261
HL Deb 12 November 2009, vol 714, col 893

See 3.4.2 OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

Interview

When citing an interview you conducted yourself, give the name, position and institution (as relevant) of the interviewee, and the location and full date of the interview. If the interview was conducted by someone else, the interviewer’s name should appear at the beginning of the citation.

Footnotes and bibliography:

Interview with Irene Kull, Assistant Dean, Faculty of Law, Tartu University (Tartu, Estonia, 4 August 2003)
Timothy Endicott and John Gardner, Interview with Tony Honoré, Emeritus Regius Professor of Civil Law, University of Oxford (Oxford, 17 July 2007)

See 3.4.10 OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

Letter

When citing personal communications, such as emails and letters, give the author and recipient of the communication, and the date. If you are yourself the author or recipient of the communication, say ‘from author’ or ‘to author’ as appropriate.

Footnote and bibliography:

Letter from Gordon Brown to Lady Ashton (20 November 2009)

Newspaper article

When citing newspaper articles, give the author, the title, the name of the newspaper in italics and then in brackets the city of publication and the date. Some newspapers have ‘The’ in the title and some do not. If known, give the number of the page on which the article was published, after the brackets. If the newspaper is divided into sections, and the page numbering begins afresh in each section, put the section name in roman before the page number, with a space but no comma between the two. If the reference is to an editorial, cite the author as ‘Editorial’. If the article is sourced from the web and there is no page number available, provide the web address and date of access.

Footnotes:

1. Jane Croft, ‘Supreme Court Warns on Quality’ Financial Times (London, 1 July 2010) 3.
2. Ian Loader, ‘The Great Victim of this Get Tough Hyperactivity is Labour’ The Guardian (London, 19 June 2008) <www.guardian.co.uk commentisfree> accessed 19 November 2009.


Bibliography: 

Croft J, ‘Supreme Court Warns on Quality’ Financial Times (London, 1 July 2010) 
Loader I, ‘The Great Victim of this Get Tough Hyperactivity is Labour’ The Guardian (London, 19 June 2008) <www.guardian.co.uk commentisfree> accessed 19 November 2009

List under Secondary Sources

Copied from OSCOLA 4th edn 3.4.9 

Podcast

The general principles for ‘other secondary sources’ (OSCOLA 4th ed. 3.4.1) suggest the following form for citing podcasts, YouTube videos and similar sources:

Author, ‘Title’ (publication date) <url> accessed xx month 2014

If there is no clear author, give the organisation providing the source as the author. The examples below include a suggestion for citing the comments of a particular person.

Examples:

Dr Douglas Guilfoyle, ‘The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: Origins and Importance’ (14 August 2013) <www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SOqz1Yu8tY> accessed 15 April 2014.
British Medical Journal podcast, 'Insanity in the Dock' (20 July 2012) <www.bmj.com/podcast/2012/07/20/insanity-dock> accessed 15 April 2014.


If referring to comments by someone in particular, add that information as you would a pinpoint, before the url. Include the person's position if relevant. For example:

British Medical Journal podcast, 'Insanity in the Dock' (20 July 2012) comments by MatthewThompson, Centre for Evidence Based Medicine in Oxford <www.bmj.com/podcast/2012/07/20/insanity-dock> accessed 15 April 2014.


Another alternative, particularly if the podcast is quite long, would be to provide the minutes and seconds of the excerpt:

British Medical Journal podcast, 'Insanity in the Dock' (20 July 2012) 10:30-11:15 <www.bmj.com/podcast/2012/07/20/insanity-dock> accessed 15 April 2014.


Copied from OSCOLA FAQs 

Public communication

Footnotes:

Author, 'Title' (additional information, publisher year)

Lord Bingham, ‘Keynote Address’ (Liberty conference, London, 6 June 2009) <http://www.liberty-human-rights.org.uk/publications/3-articles-and-speeches/index.shtml> accessed 19 November 2009
2 Stavros Dimas, EU Environment Commissioner, 'Improving Environmental Quality through Carbon Trading' (Speech at the Carbon Expo Conference, Köln, 2 May 2007) <http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/265> accessed 29 May 2011.

Examples taken from OSCOLA FAQs

Bibliography:

List by author in Secondary Sources 

Dimas S, EU Environment Commissioner, 'Improving Environmental Quality through Carbon Trading' (Speech at the Carbon Expo Conference, Köln, 2 May 2007) <http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/265> accessed 29 May 2011.

Radio programme

Footnote:
Speaker (if a direct quote)/Presenter, 'Title of the programme' (Radio station, date of the programme)

1. Simon Tonking, ‘Jury Trial’ (BBC Radio 4, 1 May 2010) <www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00s3gq7> accessed 15 February 2013.


Bibliography:

Enter in alphabetical order in the Secondary Sources. If there is a direct quote/speaker, reverse the author's name as usual.

Tonking S,  ‘Jury Trial’ (BBC Radio 4, 1 May 2010) <www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00s3gq7> accessed 15 February 2013

Report

Use this format:

Author, 'Title' (Additonal information, edition if later than first, Publisher day Month year if available) page number if required.

Footnotes: 

1. Law Commission, 'Housing: Encouraging Responsponsible Letting' (Law Com No 312 Cm 7458, TSO, 2008) [1.5].
2. W Anderson and P Weatherburn, 'Treatment Information Needs of People Living with HIV' (Research report Nam Publications 1996).


In the bibliography

List alphabetically in author order in secondary sources, giving the authors surname first.

Anderson W and Weatherburn P, 'Treatment Information Needs of People Living with HIV' (Research report Nam Publications 1996)

Republished source

Author, Title of book (First published publication year, Edition if late than first, publisher, publication year) page if required.

Footnote: 

1. Bernard Russell The Problems of Philosophy (first published 1912, 2nd edn, OUP 1998).


Bibliography:

Russell B The Problems of Philosophy (first published 1912, 2nd edn, OUP 1998)

Review

examples

Television programme

Footnote: 
Use the following format: Main contributor [Role of main contributor],'Title of programme' [Television series episode] in Title of series (Additional information if required, Publisher, Year )

1. Sukhi Bansal [Director], 'The Apprentice'  [Television series episode] in Discount Dealing (episode 3 Aug 12, BBC1, 2015)


If you wish to refer to someone speaking during the programme, follow this format: Cite the name of the speaker (if a direct quote), the title of the programme, the radio station and the date of the programme. If there is no obvious author/speaker, begin the citation with the title of the programme. If available online, include the URL and date of access. For example:

Alan Sugar, ‘The Apprentice’ (episode 3, Aug 12, BBC1 2015) <www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b003344> accessed 15 February 2016.


Bibliography:

List under Secondary Sources in alphabetical order

Bansal S [Director], 'The Apprentice'  [Television series episode] in Discount Dealing (episode 3 Aug 12, BBC1, 2015)
Sugar, A, ‘The Apprentice’ (episode 3, Aug 12, BBC1 2015) <www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b003344> accessed 15 February 2016

Thesis

When citing an unpublished thesis, give the author, the title and then in brackets the type of thesis, university and year of completion.

Footnote: 

1. Javan Herberg, ‘Injunctive Relief for Wrongful Termination of Employment’ (DPhil thesis, University of Oxford 1989). 


Bibliography: 

Herberg J, ‘Injunctive Relief for Wrongful Termination of Employment’ (DPhil thesis, University of Oxford 1989)


Copied from 3.4.7 OSCOLA 4th edn.

UNICEF

UNICEF ‘Country programme document: China’ (10 August 2015) E/ICEF/2015/P/L.22

United Nations Court of Human Rights

UNHCR ‘Assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa. Report of the Secretary-General’ (22 August 2013) UN Doc A/68/341

Websites

If the information is available in print, reference the print version. If only available on the web, reference as follows: 

Footnote and Bibliography:

'Serving Magistrates by HMCTS Region, England and Wales, 31 March 2013, Diversity statistics and general overview 2013:’ (The Judicial Office 2013). <http://www.judiciary.gov.uk/publications/diversity-statistics-and-general-overview-2013/> accessed 17 November 2014.


OR

'Serving Magistrates 2013' (The Judicial Office 2013). <http://www.judiciary.gov.uk/publications/diversity-statistics-and-general-overview-2013/> accessed 17 November 2014.


In the bibliography, list in Secondary Sources.

YouTube video

PCMLP University of Oxford, ‘An introduction to Legal Citation Using OSCOLA’ <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GhMuHkjpxuk> accessed 04 November 2015