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Subject Guides

Referencing styles - a Practical Guide

Chicago

Chicago referencing style

Used by: English (also use MLA), History, History of Art, Music

Introduction to Chicago referencing style

The Chicago style originates from the University of Chicago, and is used in humanities subjects. This guide is based on The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.).

In-text citations

Chicago uses a footnote citation system.

In the text, a number in superscript1 is added after the information:

Hall presents the awkwardness of conversations between a patient and doctor.1


The reference is then given in the footnote at the bottom of the page. Give full details of a source the first time it is cited, and a shortened version including the author and title for subsequent citations. If the title is more than five words long, it can be shortened in subsequent citations. 

First citation: 1. M. R. Hall, The Coroner (Basingstoke: Pan Books, 2009), 7-10.
Subsequent citations: 1. Hall, The Coroner, 7-10.


See guidance below on when to include page number and URLs in footnotes.

Reference list

The reference list at the end of the document includes the full details of each source so the reader can find them themselves. The list is organised alphabetically by author surname. 

The information to include depends on the types of source - see the examples on this page.

Useful resources

Guidance for all source types

This guidance applies to all source types.


1 author

First and subsequent footnotes:
1. Christopher Bartley, An Introduction to Indian Philosophy (London: Continuum, 2011), 5.
2. Bartley, Indian Philosophy, 7.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Bartley, Christopher. An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. London: Continuum, 2011.

2 or 3 authors

List authors in the order they appear in the publication.

First and subsequent footnotes:
1. John Peck and Martin Coyle, The Student's Guide to Writing (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), 11.
2. Peck and Coyle, Student’s Guide, 13.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Peck, John, and Martin Coyle. The Student's Guide to Writing. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan,
   2005.

4+ authors

In footnotes, give the first author's name followed by et al. (the full stop is important!). In the reference list, list all author names in the order they appear in the publication.

First and subsequent footnotes:
1. Sarah Moore et al., The Ultimate Study Skills Handbook (Maidenhead: Open UP, 2010), 15.
2. Moore et al., Ultimate Study Skills, 20.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Moore, Sarah, Colin Neville, Maura Murphy, and Cornelia Connolly.The Ultimate Study Skills
    Handbook.
 Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2010.

‘Ibid.’, short for Ibidem, meaning ‘in the same place’ is used in the Chicago Style in certain circumstances where a source is cited on more than one occasion, in place of a shortened version of a source’s details. ‘Ibid.’ should only be used to refer again to the source directly preceding the footnote.

The word is used in place of all material on the source that is exactly identical. For example:

1. Emma Smith and Anne Jones. Surrealist Artists (London: Easel Books, 2007), 15.
2. Ibid., 17-18.


​​​​​​​Ibid. should not be overused and so attention should be paid to how source material is included in the text and footnotes to ensure it remains clear to the reader what material is being cited.

Quotations of word-for-word copies of another person’s work included in your writing must be clearly distinguished from your own words and ideas. You must also include the page number(s) in the footnote.


Short quotations: less than three lines of text or two lines of poetry

For short quotations, include it as part of your sentence. Give a brief phrase to introduce it and enclose it within double quotation marks “ “. Include the page number within the footnote, but not in the reference list/ bibliography entry.
In-text:

As Neville states, “you should cite all sources and present full details of these in your list of references.”5

Footnote:

5. Colin Neville, The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism, 2nd ed. (Maidenhead: Open University Press), 37.

Long quotations: more than three lines of text or two lines of poetry

For long quotations, format these as an indented block quotation.

Short quotation (poetry/play scripts)

Give the line number(s) for lines of poetry or a play script, for example:

Coward creates a delicate image of nature in “To a Maidenhair Fern”, which begins “You pretty thing / each dainty frond unbending,”6

Footnote

6.    Noel Coward, “To a Maidenhair Fern,” in The Complete Verse of Noël Coward, ed. Barry Day (London: Methuen Drama, 2011), 72, lines 1-2.

Reference

Coward, Noel. “To a Maidenhair Fern.” In The Complete Verse of Noël Coward, edited by. Barry Day, 72. London: Methuen Drama, 2011.

In the Coward example, the name of the poem is given in quotation marks, as it is the title of a poem within a collected edition. The page on which the poem appears in the edited collection is also given, followed by the line numbers of the quoted poem. Note also, in the reference, the page number is moved before the publisher details, and ‘ed’. is replaced by ‘edited by’.


Long quotation (poetry/play scripts)

For longer quotations, use block quotation, without quotation marks, but clearly indent the quote to indicate these words are not your own. For example:

Neville comments that:
It can sometimes be difficult, if not impossible, to avoid using some of the author’s original words, particularly those that describe or label phenomena. However, you need to avoid copying out what the author said, word for word. Choose words that you feel give a true impression of the author’s original ideas or action.7

Footnote

7.    Neville, Complete Guide, 38.

NB: As the source has been cited previously, a shortened version of the footnote can be used.

For poetry, either indent the full quotation and left align, or if appropriate, retain the unusual spacing. For example:

Coward creates an optimistic image of nature in “To a Maidenhair Fern”:
                You pretty thing,
        Each dainty frond unbending,
        Supple unending,
               Like pearls on a string –
        Your message in sending
               A promise of spring.1

Follow the advice above for information to include in the footnote and reference list.

It is important to give a page number in an intext citation in the following circumstances:

  • when quoting directly 
  • when referring to a specific detail in a text (for example, a specific theory or idea, an illustration, a table, a set of statistics)
  • when giving a paraphrase or summary from a text.

This might mean giving an individual page number or a small range of pages from which you have taken the information. Giving page numbers enables the reader to locate the specific item to which you refer.

Where no page or paragraph number can be given for a source, such as an online publication, ‘n.p.’ can be used to denote ‘no pagination’.

If you're synthesising a number of sources to support your argument, you can cite them in one footnote. For example:

Bedford and Holbeche, Kingsley, and Riley-Smith trace the origins of the Hospitallers to Jerusalem and 1099 if not earlier, though hospitals had been founded in the city before then.13

Footnote 

13.     W. K. R. Bedford and Richard Holbeche, The Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (London: F. E. Robinson, 1902): 2; Rose G. Kingsley, The Order of St. John of Jerusalem (Past and Present) (London: Skeffington and Son, 1918): 14; Jonathan Riley-Smith, Hospitallers: The History of the Order of St John (London: The Hambledon Press): 19.

Sources should appear in the footnote in the order mentioned in the text or the order in which details from them were presented, with care not to cause confusion. Sources should then be listed alphabetically in the reference list/ bibliography.

If you are referring to a number of works by the same author, in your reference list/ bibliography you can replace the author’s name, after first use, with the 3-em dash — (this can be done in Word by pressing ctrl + alt + the minus sign on the number pad). For example:

Horowitz, Anthony. Necropolis. London: Walker, 2009.
—. Oblivion. London: Walker, 2012.

Order the sources alphabetically by title when the author’s name is the same.

If you are citing the same person but individually and in co-authored works, you should write their name in full in the reference list/ bibliography for each source cited with different authors, for example:

Smith, Emma. A History of Surrealism. London: National Gallery, 2005.
Smith, Emma and Anne Jones. Surrealist Artists. London: Easel Books, 2007.
—. Joan Miro. London: Easel Books, 2009.
Smith, Emma, James Jackson and Anne Jones. A Young Person’s Guide to
      Surrealism.
 London: National Gallery, 2009.

No author name

It is important to use quality sources to support your arguments and so you should consider carefully the value of using any source when you cannot identify its author. For online sources, look carefully for named contributors, such as in the ‘about us’ sections. For printed material, try to locate authors in the publication/ copyright information which is often on the inside cover of a book or back page of a report.

If you can't find the author information, don't use ‘Anon.’ or ‘Anonymous’. Instead you could use:

  • The name of the organisation in place of the author – eg, BBC
  • The title of the work/ webpage in full or in short form, in such a way as to easily locate the source in the reference list/ bibliography – The Georgian Assembly Hall.

In the reference list/ bibliography, the work would then be listed alphabetically by the first major word of its title, that is, the above would be listed under G. For example:

The Georgian Assembly Hall. York: Wright’s Books, 1885.

No publication date

Knowing when a source was created, published, or last updated is important as this helps you to determine the relevance and reliability of the source. Sacred and classical works where dates are not given (precisely) are, however, also commonly used. For online sources, look carefully for created and/ or last updated dates on the page(s).

If the source doesn't give the date, but you can reasonably estimate it, put the date in [ ] to indicate this, adding a ? to emphasise any uncertainty, for example:

John, Jeremy. My Poems from the Trenches. London: Knight Books, [1919?].

Alternatively, use ‘n.d., ca. 1919’ for no date, circa 1919.

John, Jeremy. My Poems from the Trenches. London: Knight Books, n.d., ca. 1919.

If you can't find or estimate a publication date, use ‘n.d.’ for no date in place of the year.

A secondary reference is given when you are referring to a source which you have not read yourself, but have read about in another source. For example, referring to Jones’ work that you have read about in Smith. Avoid using secondary references wherever possible and locate the original source and reference that. Only give a secondary reference where this is not possible and you deem it essential to use the material. It is important to think carefully about using secondary references as the explanation or interpretation of that source by the author you have read may not be accurate.
If you must use them, use the following format:

Footnote:

1. Colleer Abbott, The Life and Letters of George Darley, Poet and Critic, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967): 59, quoted in Paul Chirico, John Clare and the Imagination of the Reader (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), 47.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Abbott, Colleer. The Life and Letters of George Darley, Poet and Critic, 2nd ed.  Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967.
Chirico, Paul. John Clare and the Imagination of the Reader. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

NB: The Department of English ask that both the secondary source and the source in which you read about it are included in the footnote and reference list.

The Department of History ask that the footnote includes details of both sources, but that only the source read is included in the reference list.

How footnotes are included in your word count varies depending on departmental practice.

  • English: all footnotes are included in the word count
  • History: footnotes that only contain a reference to source material are not included, but discursive footnotes (footnotes with explanations/extra information) are included in the word count
  • History of art: footnotes are included in the word count, but plate captions are not included

If footnotes are included, this doesn't mean you should leave out citations where they are appropriate, as references to source material are an integral part of academic writing.

Include the full details of the source, concluding the footnote with the URL.


Whole website

The society was founded in 1924 dedicated to promoting interest in the notorious king.11

Footnote

11.   The Richard III Society, 2013, accessed Aug 2, 2013, http://www.richardiii.net/.

Reference

The Richard III Society. 2013. Accessed Aug 2, 2013. http://www.richardiii.net/.

Specific page of a website

Footnote

12.   “Ricardian Sites: Leicester,” The Richard III Society, 2013, accessed Aug 2, 2013, http://www.richardiii.net/richards_world. php#leicester.

Reference

The Richard III Society. “Ricardian Sites:   Leicester.” The Richard III Society. 2013. Accessed Aug 2, 2013. http://www.richardiii.net/richards_world.php

The reference includes the sponsor or owner of the site, which is presented first. In the example above, The Richard III Society are both the owners of the website and the name of the site, though these could be different in other cases. Individual webpages are presented in quotation marks, but titles of whole websites are not.

You should capitalise the first word, the last word and any major word of a book, journal article, etc. Also, capitalise the first word following a colon in the title. For example:

Pride and Prejudice

Troy and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery

Commonly used sources

Examples of footnote and reference list entries for key source types.

Use these examples alongside the information given in the 'Guidance for all source types' box.

Footnotes

  • First footnote: First name Surname, Title of book (Place: Publisher, year), page number if needed.
  • Subsequent footnotes: Surname, Title of book OR shortened title, page number if needed.
1. Christopher Bartley, An Introduction to Indian Philosophy (London: Continuum, 2011), 5.
2. Bartley, Indian Philosophy, 7.

Reference list

Surname, First name. Title of book. Place: Publisher, year.

Peck, John, and Martin Coyle. The Student's Guide to Writing. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan,
   2005.

For a translated book or a book published in another language, see the examples below.

Chapter in an edited book

Footnotes

  • First footnote: Author fist name Surname, "Chapter title", in Book title, ed. Editor first name Surname (Place: Publisher, year), page number if needed.
  • Subsequent footnotes: Author surname, "Chapter title", page number if needed.
1. John Marenbon, "The Medievals," in The Oxford Handbook of Causation, ed. Helen Beebee, Christopher Hitchcock, and Peter Menzies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 42.
2. Marenbon, "The Medievals," 43.


Reference list

Author Surname, First name. "Chapter title". In Book title, edited by Editor first name Surname, chapter page numbers. Place: Publisher, year.

Marenbon, John. "The Medievals." In The Oxford Handbook of Causation, edited by Helen Beebee,
   Christopher Hitchcock and Peter Menzies, 40-54. Oxford: Oxford Universty Press, 2009.

Edited book as a whole

Footnotes

  • First footnote: Editor First name Surname, ed., Book title (Place: Publisher, year), page number if needed.
  • Subsequent footnotes: Editor Surname, Book title OR shortened title, page if needed.
1. Helen Beebee, Christopher Hitchcock, and Peter Menzies, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Causation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 90.
2. Beebee, Hitchcock, and Menzies, Handbook of Causation, 100.


Reference list

Editor Surname, First name, ed. Book title OR shortened title. Place: Publisher, year.

Beebee, Helen, Christopher Hitchcock, and Peter Menzies, ed. The Oxford Handbook of
   Causation. 
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Journal paper (print copy)

Footnotes

  • First footnote: First name Surname, "Title of paper", Name of Journal volume, issue number (year): page number.
  • Subsequent footnotes: Surname, "Title of paper OR shortened title", page number.
1. Stephen Mossman, "Dorothea von Montau and the Masters of Prague," Oxford German Studies 39, no. 2 (2010): 106.
2. Mossman, "Dorothea von Montau," 112.


Reference list
Surname, First name, "Title of paper", Name of Journal volume, issue number (year): page numbers.

Mossman, Stephen. "Dorothea von Montau and the Masters of Prague." Oxford German Studies
   39, no. 2 (2010): 106-123.

Journal paper (electronic)

Footnotes

  • First footnote: First name Surname, "Title of paper", Name of Journal volume, issue number (year): page number OR paragraph number, accessed month day, year
  • Subsequent footnotes: Surname, "Title of paper OR shortened title", page number OR paragraph number.
1. Geoffrey Roberts, "The Limits of Popular Radicalism: British Communism and the People’s War, 1941-45," Chronicon 1 (1997) 3: para. 85, accessed Aug 5, 2013, http://www.ucc.ie/chronicon/keoghfra.htm.
2. Roberts, "Limits of Popular Radicalism," para. 87.


Reference list

Surname, First name, "Title of paper", Name of Journal volume, issue number (year): page numbers OR paragraph numbers. Accessed month day, year. URL OR DOI

Roberts, Geoffrey. "The Limits of Popular Radicalism: British Communism and the People’s War,
  1941-45." Chronicon 1 (1997) 3: paras. 1-92. Accessed Aug 5, 2013.
  http://www.ucc.ie/chronicon/keoghfra.htm.

 

Normally, this format is used only for journals that do not have a print publication and are published only online, or that have a particular online version. For journals that have both print and online publication, use the referencing format for 'Journal article (print copy)', even if you obtained your copy of the article electronically.

"Para" in this example is used to denote the fact the journal uses paragraph numbers in place of page numbering. The ‘3’ preceeding the paragraph number informs that this is the third article in the volume, given again in the absence of page numbering to aid recall of the article.

Articles such as ‘the’ are removed from the footnote and reference for newspaper titles. Where a newspaper’s location might be important to include, this can be given in ( ) after the name, for example Morning Herald (London).


Newspaper or magazine article (with author)

Footnote:

  • First footnote: First name Surname, "Title of article". Name of newspaper/magazine, Month day, year, page number.
  • Subsequent footnotes: Surname, "Title of article OR shortened title", page number.
1. Brian Brady and Kunal Dutta, "45,000 Caught Cheating at Britain's Universities," Independent on Sunday, Mar 11, 2012, 4.
2. Brady and Dutta, "45,000 Caught Cheating", 5.


Reference list:

Surname, First name. "Title of article". Name of newspaper/magazine. Month day, year, page number.

Brady, Brian and Kunal Dutta. "45,000 Caught Cheating at Britain's Universities." Independent on
  Sunday. Mar 11, 2012, 4-5.

 


Newspaper or magazine article (without named author)

Footnote:

For a source without an author it is acceptable to use the title, or a shortened version of it, in the in-text citation.

  • First footnote: "Title of article", editorial, Name of newspaper/magazine, Month day, year, page number.
  • Subsequent footnotes: Surname, "Title of article OR shortened title", page number.
1. "French Elections. Bitter-Sweet Victory for the Left," editorial, Guardian Apr 23, 2012, 26.
2. "French Elections," 26.


Reference list:

 Name of newspaper/magazine. "Title of article". Editorial. Month day, year, page number.

Guardian. "French Elections. Bitter-Sweet Victory for the Left." Editorial. Apr 23, 2012, 26.

Website (with named author)

Footnote:

  • First footnote: First name Surname, "Title of specific webpage", Name of website, Month day, year, accessed Month day, year, URL
  • Subsequent footnotes: Surname, "Title of specific webpage".
1. Stephen Fry, "A London Secret Shared," The New Adventures of Stephen Fry, Dec 5, 2011, accessed Aug 8, 2013, http://www.stephenfry.com/2011/12/05/londonlibrary/.
2. Fry, "A London Secret Shared."

Reference list/ bibliography:

Surname, First name. "Title of specific webpage", Name of website. Month day, year. Accessed Month day, year. URL

Fry, Stephen. "A London Secret Shared." The New Adventures of Stephen Fry. Dec 5, 2011.
   Accessed Aug 8, 2013. http://www.stephenfry.com/2011/12/05/londonlibrary/

Website (without named author)

Footnote:

  • First footnote: "Title of specific webpage", Name of website, Month day, year, accessed Month day, year, URL
  • Subsequent footnotes: "Title of specific webpage".
1. "Distance Learners," The Writing Centre, University of York, Apr 12, 2013, accessed June 17, 2013, https://www.york.ac.uk/students/studying/develop-your-skills/study-skills/writing/distancelearners/.
2. "Distance Learners."

Reference list/ bibliography:

Name of organisation. "Title of specific webpage". Name of website, Name of organisation. Month day, year. Accessed Month day, year, URL

University of York. "Distance Learners." The Writing Centre. University of York. Apr 12, 2013.
  Accessed June 17, 2013. https://www.york.ac.uk/students/ studying/develop-your-skills
  /study-skills/writing/distancelearners/.

Further sources

Examples of footnote and reference list entries for other source types.

Use these examples alongside the information given in the 'Guidance for all source types' box.

Footnote
Enacted pre-1963 – including the regnal-year (year of the monarch’s reign)

1. The Poor Relief Act, 1601, 43 Eliz. 1, c. 2.
2. The Poor Relief Act, 1601.

Enacted post-1963

1. Social Security Act, 1998, c. 14 (UK): para. 2.1(a).
2. Social Security Act, 1998, 3.1.

Reference list/ bibliography:
When included in full in a footnote the first time the legislation is cited, no additional reference entry is required.

The ‘c. 2’/ ‘c. 14’ refers to the chapter, the number of the Act according to those passed during the year of the monarch’s reign/ parliamentary session. If it might be unclear as to which jurisdiction the legislation applies, this can be given in ( ).

Footnote

1. Master Atlas of Greater London, 11th ed. (Sevenoaks: Geographer's A-Z Map Company, 2007), 2.
2. Master Atlas, 3.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Master Atlas of Greater London. 11th ed. Sevenoaks: Geographer's A-Z Map Company, 2007.

Footnote:

1. Stephen Fry, "Supporting Pussy Riot," The New Adventures of Stephen Fry (blog), Aug 22, 2012, accessed Aug 6, 2013, http://www.stephenfry.com/2012/08/22/supporting-pussy-riot/.
2. Fry, "Supporting Pussy Riot".

Reference list/ bibliography:

Fry, Stephen. “Supporting Pussy Riot”. The New Adventures of Stephen Fry (blog) Aug 22, 2012.
   *Accessed Aug 6, 2013. http://www.stephenfry.com/2012/08/22/supporting-pussy-riot/.

Use this format if including illustrations, for example in writing about children’s literature

Illustration caption (below image):

Mr Toad driving away in the stolen car. Illustrated by Martin Aitchison, in The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Grahame, retold by Joan Collins (Loughborough: Ladybird, 1983), 12.


Reference list/ bibliography:

Grahame, Kenneth. The Wind in the Willows. Retold by, Joan Collins. Loughborough: Ladybird,
   1983.

If you are reading an English language version of a book originally published in another language follow this example

Footnote:

1. H. K. F. van Nierop, The Nobility of Holland: From Knights to Regents, 1500-1650, trans. Maarten Ultee (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 24.
2. Van Nierop, Nobility of Holland, 33.

Reference list/ bibliography:

van Nierop, H. K. F. The Nobility of Holland: From Knights to Regents, 1500-1650. Translated by
   Maarten Ultee. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

‘Trans.’ is used in the footnote, but ‘translated by’ is used in the reference.

Follow this example if you want to refer to a book you read in another language

Footnote:

1. Jacques Le Goff and Pierre Nora, Faire de l’Histoire: Nouveaux Problèmes [Constructing History] (France: Gallimard, 1974), 5.
2. Le Goff and Nora, Faire de l’Histoire, 6.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Le Goff, Jacques, and Nora Pierre. Faire de l’Histoire: Nouveaux Problèmes [Constructing History].
  France: Gallimard, 1974.

If shortening the title of a non-English work, care must be taken not to omit words that govern the case ending of a word in the shortened title.

If a named author is given use this at the start of the footnote/ reference and, otherwise use the name of the program.

Footnote:

1. Snagit, version. 9.1 (Okemos, MI: TechSmith, 2009), computer software.
2. Snagit.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Snagit. Version. 9.1. Okemos, MI: TechSmith, 2009. Computer software.

Conference paper (unpublished)

Footnote:

1. Amy Burge. "A Very English Place: The Intimate Relationship Between Britain and Arabia in the Contemporary Sheikh Romance," (conference paper, EUPOP 2012: Inaugural Conference of the European Popular Culture Association, University of the Arts, London, July 11-13, 2012).
2. Burge, "Very English Place".

Reference list/ bibliography:

Burge, Amy. "A Very English Place: The Intimate Relationship Between Britain and Arabia
   in the Contemporary Sheikh Romance." Paper presented at EUPOP 2012: Inaugural
   Conference of the European Popular Culture Association. University of the Arts,
   London. July 11-13, 2012.

 


Conference proceedings (full)

Footnote:

1. Sabrina J. Billings, John P. Boyle, and Aaron M. Griffith, ed., CLS 35 Part 1: Papers from the Main Session (Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, 1999).
2. Billings, Boyle, and Griffith, CLS 35.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Billings, Sabrina J., John P. Boyle, and Aaron M. Griffith, ed. CLS 35 Part 1: Papers from the Main
   Session. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, 1999.

Include the type of resource at the end of the first footnote/reference list entry.

Footnote:

1. Jonathan Harvey, "How I got my Nose," Beautiful People, series 1, episode 2, directed by Gareth Carrivick (London: BBC Worldwide, 2008), DVD.
2. Harvey, "How I got my Nose".

Reference list/ bibliography:

Harvey, Jonathan. "How I got my Nose." Beautiful People, series 1, episode 2. Directed by Gareth
   Carrivick. London: BBC Worldwide, 2008. DVD.

Jonathan Harvey is listed first as the writer. If unknown, start with the title of the work.

Footnote:

1. A Midsummer’s Night Dream, choreographed by David Nixon, Northern Ballet, West Yorkshire Playhouse, Leeds. Sep 6, 2013.
2. A Midsummer’s Night Dream.


Reference list/ bibliography:

A Midsummer’s Night Dream. Choreographed by David Nixon. Northern Ballet. West Yorkshire
   Playhouse, Leeds. Sep 6, 2013.

Online database (specific content)

Footnote:

1. Anne Jane Walker Shepperd, Diary of Anne Jane Walker Shepperd, August 1940, (Alexandria, VA: Alexander Street Press, 2004), 1. British and Irish Women’s Letters and Diaries 1500 to 1950, accessed June 6, 2013. http://solomon.bwld.alexanderstreet.com/cgi-bin/asp/philo/bwld/getdoc.pl?S1
2403-D001.
2. Shepperd, Diary, 2.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Shepperd, Anne Jane Walker. Diary of Anne Jane Walker Shepperd, August 1940. Alexandria, VA:
   Alexander Street Press, 2004. British and Irish Women’s Letters and Diaries 1500 to 1950.
   Accessed June 6, 2013. http://solomon.bwld.alexanderstreet.com/cgi-bin/asp/philo/bwld/
   getdoc.pl?S12403-D001. 

The first footnote records the page cited after the ( ). In this example, it would also be appropriate to make reference in the text to specific details cited, for example, the date of the diary entry or paragraph number as presented in the online version.


Online database (not referring to specific content)

Footnote:

1.Eighteenth Century Collections Online, accessed June 5, 2013, http://gale.cengage.co.uk/product-highlights/history/eighteenth-century-collections-online.aspx.
2. Eighteenth Century Collections Online.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Accessed June 5, 2013. http://gale.cengage.co.uk/
   product-highlights/history/eighteenth-century-collections-online.aspx.

Footnote:

1. Thomas Larkham, The Diary of Thomas Larkham, 1647-1669, ed. Susan Hardman Moore (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2011), 13.
2. Larkham, Diary, 14.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Larkham, Thomas. The Diary of Thomas Larkham, 1647-1669. Edited by Susan Hardman Moore.
   Woodbridge: Boydell, 2011.

Footnote:

1. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy ed. Simon Blackburn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), s.v. "norm".
2. Dictionary of Philosophy, s.v. "aesthetics".

Reference list/ bibliography:

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Edited by Simon Blackburn. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
   1996.

For reference works such as the above example, ‘s.v.’ means sub verbo, ‘under the word’, and is placed before the word or entry cited.

E-book (online)

If page markers are not available on the e-book version you are using cite the chapter for specific references to the source.

Footnote:

1. Jessica N. Berry, Nietzsche and the Ancient Skeptical Tradition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), ch.3, accessed June 5, 2013, http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195368420.001.0001/acprof-9780195368420.
2. Berry, Nietzsche, chap. 5.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Berry, Jessica N. Nietzsche and the Ancient Skeptical Tradition. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
   2011. Accessed June 5, 2013. http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/
   9780195368420.001.0001/acprof-9780195368420.

 


E-book (using e-reader)

If viewing an e-book using an e-book reader it is important to reference the specific version of the publication for this reader. If page markers are not available on the e-book version you are using cite the chapter for specific references to the source.

Footnote:

1. Suzanne Collins, The Hunger Games (New York: Scholastic Fiction, 2011), Kindle edition, chap. 6.
2. Collins, The Hunger Games, chap. 7.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games. New York: Scholastic Fiction, 2011. Kindle edition.

Personal communications do not need to be included in the reference list/ bibliography, but should be clearly cited in the text, either in the sentence or by including a footnote. Change 'email' to the relevant communication type.

In-text:

In an email to the author dated June 3, 2013, Irene Johnson suggested…

OR
Footnote: 

1. Irene Johnson, email message to the author, June 3, 2013.

Encylcopedia as a whole

Footnote:

1. William P. Banks, ed. Encyclopedia of Consciousness. 2 vols. (London: Elsevier, 2009).
2. Banks, Encyclopedia of Consciousness.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Banks, William P., ed. Encyclopedia of Consciousness. 2 vols. London: Elsevier, 2009.

Encyclopedia (specific entry)

Footnote:

1. John Cannon, R. H. C. Davis, William Doyle, and Jack P. Greene, ed., The Blackwell Dictionary of Historians (Oxford: Blackwell, 1988), s.v. "Ariès, Philippe".

Reference list/ bibliography:

Cannon, John, R. H. C. Davis, William Doyle, and Jack P. Greene, ed. The Blackwell Dictionary of
   Historians. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.

 ‘s.v.’ means sub verbo, ‘under the word’, and is placed before the word or entry cited

Footnote:

1. The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas, directed by Mark Herman (Miramax Films, 2008), film.
2. The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas.

Reference list/ bibliography:

The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas. Directed by Mark Herman. Miramax Films, 2008. Film.

Footnote:

1. Department for Education, What is the Research Evidence on Writing? DFE-RR238, 2012, 4.
2. Department for Education, Evidence on Writing, 8.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Department for Education. What is the Research Evidence on Writing? DFE-RR238, 2012.

Graph, chart, figure or table (print copy)

Footnote: [Figure/table here]
Caption:

Table 1. Birth intervals among twenty-one selected families of Holland nobles. Source: H. K. F. van Nierop, The Nobility of Holland: From Knights to Regents, 1500-1650, trans. Maarten Ultee (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 61.

Reference list/ bibliography:

van Nierop, H. K. F. The Nobility of Holland: From Knights to Regents, 1500-1650. Translated by
   Maarten Ultee. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

 


Graph, chart, figure or table (online)

Footnote: [Figure/table here]
Caption:

Fig. 1. Word count by genre. "Shakespeare Text Statistics," OpenSource Shakespeare, George Mason University, 2013, accessed June 5, 2013, http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/stats/.

Reference list/ bibliography:

OpenSource Shakespeare. "Shakespeare Text Statistics." OpenSource Shakespeare. George Mason
   University, 2013. Accessed June 5, 2013. http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/stats/.

If referring to an interview conducted by someone else that has been published in such as a newspaper or journal you can reference in the following way.

Footnote:

1. Mary Beard, interviewed by Matthew Reisz, "A Roman Holiday with Cicero (and Mr Hot Sex, too)," Times Higher Education, Apr 19, 2012, 48.
2. Beard, interview, 49.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Beard, Mary. "A Roman Holiday with Cicero (and Mr Hot Sex, too)." Interview by Matthew Reisz.
    Times Higher Education. Apr 19, 2012, 48-49.

Footnote:

1. Nick Jones, "The Self and how to Know it," (lecture, Know Thyself Open Course, University of York, York, Nov 3, 2011).
2. Jones, "The Self", lecture.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Jones, Nick. "The Self and how to Know it." Lecture for Know Thyself Open Course University of
   York, York, Nov 3, 2011.

Footnote:

1. Nick Jones, "The Self and how to Know it". Know Thyself Open Course, lecture notes (York: University of York, 2011), 1.
2. Jones, "The Self", lecture notes, 2.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Jones, Nick. "The Self and how to Know it". Know Thyself Open Course. Lecture notes. York:
   University of York, 2011. 1-3.

Manuscript (single item in collection)

Footnote:

1. Vogt to von Bohlen, 30 May 1925, Familienarchive Hügel (FAH) 4E 266, fol. 241, Historisches Archiv Krupp.
(Subsequent use of the same item)
2. Vogt to von Bohlen, Historisches Archiv.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Vogt to von Bohlen, 30 May 1925. Familienarchiv Hügel. Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach-
   Stiftung, Historisches Archiv Krupp, Duisburg.

If citing just one item from a collection, include a footnote and reference, as in the example above. The reference begins with the item.


Manuscript (multiple items from a collection)

Footnote:

1. Vogt to von Bohlen, 30 May 1925, Familienarchive Hügel (FAH) 4E 266, fol. 241, Historisches Archiv Krupp.
2. Schmidt to von Bohlen, 2 June 1935, Familienarchive Hügel (FAH) 4E 266, fol. 245.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Familienarchiv Hügel. Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach-Stiftung, Historisches Archiv Krupp,
   Duisburg.

If citing a number of items from a collection, include a full footnote for the first item. A shortened footnote can be used for subsequent items from the same collection. The reference begins with, and contains, details of the collection only.

If an older manuscript is numbered by signatures or by folios (fol. or fols.), these should be used in place of page numbers. If you use page numbers, the abbreviations p. and pp. should be used to avoid ambiguity. If a manuscript collection has identifying series or file numbers, these may be included in a citation.

You should cite a publication viewed in microform as per the type of source (book, newspaper, etc.) or you can refer to the actual microfiche record number and where it is stored. This is an example of a historical periodical.

Footnote: 

1. J. Brown, Freemason’s Magazine (London: J. W. Bunney, 1794), microform, The Eighteenth Century, reel 16298, Raymond Burton Library, University of York, York, 2.
2. Brown, Freemason’s Magazine, 4.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Brown, J. Freemason’s Magazine. London: J. W. Bunney, 1794. Microform. The Eighteenth
   Century. Reel 16298. Raymond Burton Library, University of York, York.

Footnote:

1. Vitebsk, by Aaron Copland, performed by Sasaki Trio, Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall, York. Jan 18, 2012.
2. Vitebsk.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Vitebsk. By Aaron Copland. Performed by Sasaki Trio. Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall, York. Jan 18, 2012.

Footnote:

1. Giacomo Puccini, Tosca (Milan: Ricardi, 1980).
2. Puccini, Tosca.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Puccini, Giacomo. Tosca. Milan: Ricardi, 1980.

Footnote:

1. Shepherd Group, "The Construction of the University of York," YouTube video, 18:22, posted by "universityofyorkuk," Mar 11, 2013, accessed June 7, 2013, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vAfb7XZonrY.
2. Shepherd Group.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Shepherd Group. "The Construction of the University of York." YouTube video, 18:22. Posted by
   "universityofyorkuk." Mar 11, 2013. Accessed June 7, 2013.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vAfb7XZonrY.

You should include the artist, the title of the piece (italicised), date of creation/completion, details of the medium and size of the piece, and the location of the piece. If you viewed the piece online, include the URL.

Footnote:

1. Claud Monet, The Water-Lily Pond, 1899, oil on canvas, 88.3 x 93.1 cm, National Gallery, London. https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/claude-monet-the-water-lily-pond
2. Monet, "The Water-Lily Pond".

Reference list/ bibliography:

Monet, Claude. "The Water-Lily Pond, 1899, oil on canvas, 88.3 x 93.1 cm, National Gallery, London. https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/claude-monet-the-water-lily-pond.

 

For more examples, see the Chicago Manual of Style entry 14.235.

To cite an artwork included as a numbered illustration in another publication, see the Chicago Manual of Style entry 14.158.

Footnote:

1. Graduate Students' Association, Graduate Guide 2013 (York: Graduate Students' Association, University of York, 2013), 5.
2. Graduate Students' Association, Graduate Guide 2013, 7.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Graduate Students' Association. Graduate Guide 2013. York: Graduate Students' Association,
   University of York, 2013.

Footnote:

1. Energy Bill (H.L.), 2013-14, 48: para. 5(4).
2. Energy Bill, para. 9(1).

Reference list/ bibliography:
When included in full in a footnote the first time the legislation is cited, no additional reference entry is required.

The (H.L.) stands for House of Lords, for a Bill originating there. House of Commons Bills are denoted by (H.C.). The date represents the parliamentary session and the number is the number of the Bill.

Titles of Bills are not italicised in text or in the footnote.

Footnote:

1. S. Berberet and M. Bates, fitting for plumbing fixture, US Patent D582022. Dec 2, 2008.
2. Berberet and Bates.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Berberet, S., and M. Bates. Fitting for plumbing fixture. US Patent D582022. 2 Dec. 2008.

To cite and reference the programme for a performance such as a play, dance or concert, use the following example:

Footnote:

1. Nikolai Foster, "A Beautiful Re-discovery," theatre programme, Beautiful Thing, n. pag., Leeds: West Yorkshire Playhouse, June 3-8, 2013.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Foster, Nikolai. "A Beautiful Re-discovery." Theatre programme. Beautiful Thing. n. pag. Leeds:
   West Yorkshire Playhouse. June 3-8, 2013. 

The reference is for an authored contribution within the overall performance programme. ‘n. pag.’ in this example denotes no pagination, that is, page numbering.

Footnote:

1. J. Jarche, "Miner with Pit Pony," (photograph, National Media Museum, Bradford, 1931).
2. Jarche, "Miner with Pit Pony".

Reference list/ bibliography:

Jarche, J. "Miner with Pit Pony." Photograph. National Media Museum, Bradford, 1931.

Footnote:

1. Yes, Prime Minister, by Jonathan Lynn, directed by Jonathan Lynn, Theatre Royal, York. Apr 16, 2012.
2. Yes, Prime Minister.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Yes, Prime Minister. By Jonathan Lynn. Directed by Jonathan Lynn. Theatre Royal, York. Apr 16,
   2012.

If you are citing from a prose play, give the page number(s) for the quotation.

If you are citing from a verse play, give the act, scene and line(s) quoted and separated by a full stop.

Prose play footnote:

1. Samuel Beckett, Happy Days (London: Faber and Faber, 1961), 27.

Verse play footnote: 

2. William Shakespeare, Othello, ed. Jane Coles (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992), 1.3.390-93.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Beckett, Samuel. Happy Days. London: Faber and Faber, 1961.
Shakespeare, William. Othello. Edited by Jane Coles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
   1992.

Footnote:

1. M. Bairstow, "The Storm," English Folk Poetry: Structure and Meaning, ed. Roger deV Renwick (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1980), 163, lines 3-4.
2. Bairstow, "The Storm," lines 5-6.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Bairstow, M. "The Storm." English Folk Poetry: Structure and Meaning, edited by Roger de
    Renwick, 163. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1980.

Footnote:

1. Chris Moyles, "Tulisa Stands in for Dave," BBC Radio 1: Best of Chris Moyles, podcast audio, Apr 6, 2012, accessed Apr 19, 2012, http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/radio1/moyles/moyles_20120406-0130a.mp3.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Moyles, Chris. "Tulisa Stands in for Dave." BBC Radio 1: Best of Chris Moyles. Podcast audio. Apr 6,
   2012. Accessed Apr 19, 2012. http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/radio1/moyles/
    moyles_20120406-0130a.mp3

Footnote:

1. Jane Garvey, "Jane Austen Exhibition," Woman’s Hour, aired Apr 12, 2010 (London: BBC Radio 4, 2010), radio broadcast.
2. Garvey, "Jane Austen Exhibition."

Reference list/ bibliography:

Garvey, Jane. "Jane Austen Exhibition." Woman’s Hour. Aired Apr 12, 2010. London: BBC Radio 4,
   2010. Radio broadcast.

These include the Bible, Talmud, Koran, Upanishads, and major classical works, such as the ancient Greek and Roman works. If you are quoting a verse or extract, you should include the detail in the text of the edition of the work you are using the first time you cite from it, with the book, and specific details. It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for works, such as books of the Bible. It is not necessary to include a reference in your reference list/ bibliography for sacred works.

Footnote:

1. 1 Corinthians 5:2-3 (Good News Bible).
2. 1 Cor. 6:1-5.

The first footnote is for the book 1 Corinthians, chapter 5, verses 2-3.

Report (online)

Footnote:

1. NIACE, Work, Society and Lifelong Literacy: Report of the Inquiry into Adult Literacy in England (Leicester: NIACE, 2011), 6, accessed Aug 7, 2013. http://www.niace.org.uk/sites/default/files/documents/publications/Literacy%20Inquiry%20-%20Full%20report-WEB.pdf.
2. NIACE, Work, Society and Lifelong Literacy, 8.

Reference list/ bibliography:

NIACE. Work, Society and Lifelong Literacy: Report of the Inquiry into Adult
   Literacy in England. Leicester: NIACE, 2011. Accessed Aug 7, 2013.
   http://www.niace.org.uk/sites/default/files/documents/publications/
   Literacy%20Inquiry%20-%20Full%20report-WEB.pdf.

Report (hard copy)

Footnote:

1. Higher Education Academy, Ethnicity, Gender and Degree Attainment Project: Final Report (York: Higher Education Academy/ Equality Challenge Unit, 2008), 12.
2. Higher Education Academy, Ethnicity, 15.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Higher Education Academy. Ethnicity, Gender and Degree Attainment Project:Final Report. York:
   Higher Education Academy/ Equality Challenge Unit, 2008.

This format is for when you read a more recent version of an older work, or a paperback version of a previously published hardback. In the reference list/ bibliography you give the information for the edition you are citing followed by the original publication details.

Footnote:

1. Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist (London: Bradbury and Evans, 1846; Plymouth: Broadview Press, 2005), 24. Citations refer to the Broadview Press edition.
2. Dickens, Oliver Twist, 34.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Dickens, Charles. Oliver Twist. Plymouth: Broadview Press, 2005. First published 1846 by
   Bradbury and Evans.

Footnote:

1. M. Warner, "Travelling Text," review of The Arabian Nights: Tales of 1001 Nights, trans. Malcolm, C. Lyons, London Review of Books 30.24 (2008): 15.
2. Warner, "Travelling Text," 16.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Warner, M. "Travelling Text". Review of The Arabian Nights: Tales of 1001 Nights. Translated by
   Malcolm, C. Lyons. London Review of Books 30.24 (2008): 15-16.

Footnote:

1. Belle and Sebastian, "Wrapped up in Books," Dear Catastrophe Waitress, Rough Trade, 2003, CD.
2. Belle and Sebastian, "Wrapped up in Books."

Reference list/ bibliography:

Belle and Sebastian. "Wrapped up in Books." Dear Catastrophe Waitress. Rough Trade, 2003. CD.

Footnote:

1. Recommendations for Citation of Unpublished Documents, BS 6371:1983 (London: BSI, 1983).
2. Recommendations for Citation, BS 6371:1983.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Recommendations for Citation of Unpublished Documents. BS 6371:1983. London: BS, 1983.

The title of the episode is given in quotation marks and the programme title in italics.

Footnote:

1. "Britain’s Crimes of Honour," Panorama, BBC1, Mar 19, 2012, television broadcast.
2. "Britain’s Crimes of Honour."

Reference list/ bibliography:

"Britain’s Crimes of Honour." Panorama. BBC1. Mar 19, 2012. Television broadcast.

Footnote: 

1. L.E. Rice, "Medieval Mysteries in the Modern World: Contemporary Stagings of the York Mystery Plays," (masters dissertation, University of York, 2008), 30.
2. Rice, "Medieval Mysteries," 35.

Reference list/ bibliography:

Rice, L.E. "Medieval Mysteries in the Modern World: Contemporary Stagings of the York Mystery
   Plays." Masters dissertation. University of York, 2008.

Use either the proper name of the author where known and the pseudonym in (). If not known, just use the Twitter pseudonym. In-text, include the tweet in full in quotation marks, with other details to contextualise the tweet. In the footnote and reference list/ bibliography, just key information is then required.

In-text:

The University of York Library (@UoYLibrary) boasted in a tweet that "Britain's largest Cathedral library is here in York (and you can borrow books for free). More info on their Facebook http://bit.ly/I5pYta"…

Footnote:

1. University of York Library (@UoYLibrary), tweet, Apr 18, 2012, 2:16a.m., accessed June 10, 2013, http://twitter.com/#!/UoYLibrary/.

Reference list/ bibliography:

University of York Library (@UoYLibrary). Tweet. Apr 18, 2012, 2:16a.m. Accessed June 10, 2013.
   http://twitter.com/#!/UoYLibrary/.

Footnote:

1. "Blogs in Yorkshare: An Overview," ELDT, University of York, n.d., accessed Apr 19, 2012, https://vle.york.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/institution/E-Learning%20Development%20Team/Guides/
Bb%20Blog%20--%20Overview.html.
2. "Blogs in Yorkshare".

Reference list/ bibliography:

ELDT. "Blogs in Yorkshare: An Overview." ELDT, University of York, n.d. Accessed Apr 19, 2012.
   https://vle.york.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/institution/E-Learning%20Development%20 Team/
   Guides/Bb%20Blog%20--%20Overview.html.

‘n.d.’ denotes that the particular page is undated

Footnote:

1. Pynchon Wiki, s.v. "Against the Day," Dec 1, 2010, accessed June 17, 2013, http://against-the-day.pynchonwiki.com/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page.
2. Pynchon Wiki. s.v. "Against the Day."

Reference list/ bibliography:

Pynchon Wiki, s.v. "Against the Day." Dec 1, 2010. Accessed June 17, 2013.
   http://against-the-day.pynchonwiki.com/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page.